International Journal of Conservation Science

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Volume 10, Issue 2, 2019

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Research articles

L. Rampazzi, C. Corti

Are Commercial Pigments Reliable References for the Analysis of Paintings?

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 217-220

When paintings are examined by spectroscopic techniques, building a robust database is of major importance, in order to compare the analyses with reliable references and to correctly understand the results. The database, which is usually homemade, should include carefully chosen commercial pigments, which should be as pure as possible and should correspond to the expected formula or composition of the historical pigments. Unfortunately, sometimes no correspondence between the names of the pigments used by companies and the actual composition of some of the colors is ascertained. In some cases, the composition is in fact made up of different chemical compounds; in others the presence of extenders is revealed, for example gypsum and calcite. In this paper some cases studies are discussed, regarding commercial pigments analysed by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence. The results highlighted the importance of checking the purity of commercial pigments and excluding any extraneous compounds while interpreting the results of analytical survey of paintings.

Keywords: Painting analysis; Pigments; Infrared spectroscopy; Thermogravimetry;
X-ray diffraction; X-ray fluorescence


N.A.E. Bader

Experimental Tests Used for Treatment of Disintegrated Granite in Valley Temple Of Khafre - Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 221-232
The temple Khafre in Giza plateau was built with huge stones of limestone, which is covered with red granite. Most of this granite was taken from the outside. This granitic casing has been affected by many exogenous and endogenous deterioration factors, which led to the weakness of the surface layer and the fall of large parts of it and causes of a severe damage of the stone materials. In this study we documented the weathering of these granite casing using field recording and laboratory analysis to evaluate their conservation state. Weathering and deterioration aspects noted through light optical microscope (LOM), polarizing microscope (PM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mineralogical characterization was performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Energy dispersive analysis (EDX). Physical and mechanical properties of Granite were determined. The present study suggests that the most suitable treatment methods are composed of co-polymer (Acryloid B66, diluted at 5% in trichloroethylene + Wacker VB132 (Tetra Ethoxy Silane) or Estel 1000.

Keywords: Khafre temple; Granite; Deterioration; Consolidation; Acrylic; Ethoxy Silane


W.N. Wahba, A.A. Fahmi, E.S. Nagaty

The Evaluation of the Efficacy of two Magnesium Based Deacidification Methods on the Stability of Three Different Types of Papers

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 233-248
The degradation and embrittlement of paper is due to the depolymerization of cellulose fibers; this is induced by acidity and oxidation. An important part of dealing with these chemically unstable materials is the neutralization of acid and deposition of a buffer reservoir to protect the fibers from introduction of acid in future. Paper deacidification is a fundamental process for achieving this goal. Any deacidification method chosen must be able to treat large numbers of items, safely, quickly and cheaply. The main goal of this paper was to investigate the effect of two deacidification solutions, which have never been used in Egypt, on the chemical and physical properties of different types of paper in order to find an alternative to Calcium hydroxide the most common deacidification method used in Egypt. Magnesium salts have been chosen to produce two deacidification methods, one of them in aqueous media, and the other in nonaqueous media; however, the magnesium has excellent deacidification properties and never have been applied in Egypt before. This paper is concerned with the Evaluation of Magnesium Bicarbonate (MBC) and Methyl Magnesium Carbonate (MMC), as neutralization agents, on the stability of paper substrate before and after accelerated ageing. Deacidification of acid paper samples (old book and newspaper) coming from wood pulp (20 century) and whatman paper samples, has been carried out with elaborate findings. Examinations and scientific analyses have been used in the assessment of treated samples, to figure out the efficacy of the two methods on the paper stability. Both methods have adequate deacidification properties; the pH value of paper has increased after deacidification. Mechanical testing and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) have proven considerable stability of mechanical and chemical properties of deacidified paper after accelerated ageing.

Keywords: Acidity; Hydrolysis; Methyl Magnesium Carbonate; Magnesium Bicarbonate; Neutralization; FT-IR; pH; Tensile strength

C. Melchiorre, S. Palmiero, G. Fatigati, A. Amoresano, G. Marino, A. Carpentieri

A Procedure for Combining the Removal and the Identification of a Patina on a 15th Century Byzantine icon

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 249-256
In our paper, we report a workflow, which combines cleaning procedures and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) for the removal and the identification of a patina from a byzantine 15th century icon representing the Virgin and Child. Our strategy suggest a convenient interaction between restoration procedures and analytical methodologies aimed at the cleaning of the surface of the artwork and the identification of unknown compounds responsible for its alteration. These informations can be very useful not only to return the colors to their original brightness but to reconstruct the story of the icon too.

Keywords: Patina; GC-MS; Solvent cleaning; Cultural heritage

E. Henin, M. Ali, E. Ciliberto, A.M. Gueli, A. Belal, S. Pasquale

Investigation and Analysis of Vintage Hand-Colored Photographs from Francis Amin's Private Collection, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 257-270
Prior to the introduction of color photographic process, the only method of producing photographs in color was to apply coloring agents by hand. Hand-colored photographs were very popular in the 1920s and they are still produced today. However, little research has been carried out to study the coloring agents used in terms of their chemical composition and how they respond to deterioration agents (i.e., temperature, relative humidity and UV radiation). The identification of pigments on hand-colored photographs is necessary to profoundly understand the material and technique used, and thus select proper conservation procedures. In many cases, the application of non-invasive techniques is mandatory since physical sampling of the art works is not possible. This study represents a research aimed at studying the hand-colored photographs and the identification of the pigments. For this purpose, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is used in detecting elements that make up the photograph and most significantly the pigments used for hand-coloring. The paper further discusses the use of multispectral imaging system as a new approach in photograph conservation field. While this technique does not provide the analytical capability that spectroscopies offer, its use has the advantage of being a rapid solution for the examination of large areas. The paper looks into another important issue of conservation which is the impact of different degradation agents on the color of the photographs. This is particularly necessary for such photographic materials since they are very sensitive to the surrounding environment. For evaluating the effect of the principal degradation agents, a group of photos was exposed to different artificial aging conditions (i.e. temperature, relative humidity and UVA). The CIELAB color coordinates (L*, a*, b*) were used to express color change.

Keywords: Hand-Colored photographic prints; Pigments; Deterioration; Color change; Artificial aging; Multispectral imaging system.

M. Jasinski

Cecco Del Caravaggio's Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian. An Investigation into Caravaggisti Painting Technique and Technology

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 271-278
The object of the analyses was the painting Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian from the Collection of National Musuem in Warsaw. Cecco del Caravaggio (active c.?1610 - mid-1620s), now known as Francesco Buoneri, is one of several artists who painted in the style of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio. Giulio Mancini in Considerazioni sulla Pittura, mentions a 'Francesco detto Cecco del Caravaggio' as one of the great master's more noteworthy followers. During analyzing the painting (the analytical light, IR, X- ray, UV, cross- sections, SEM-EDS, XRF, GC-MS, FTIR), it turned out that the artist made corrections to the composition, including the most important, changing theme of the painting. X-ray images show that under the figure of the saint there is an image of Christ at the column. Examinations show that the pigments used by the Cecco were typical 17th century earth-based pigments and similar to Caravaggio palette. A very interesting part about the palette of the Caravaggisti is the use of white: they used calcium carbonate or chalk as an extender to lead white. The research on Cecco del Caravaggio painting technique was conducted as part of an exploratory project: Technique and technology of caravaggisti paintings based on polish museum collections.

Keywords: Materials characterization; Caravaggisti; Cecco del Caravaggio;
Francesco Buoneri; Painting techniques; Baroque

H. Barakat, E. Ciliberto, S. Darwish, O. Saqr

Analytical and Experimental Study of Blemishes Formation and Preventive Conservation of Cellulose Acetate Microfilms

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 279-290

The current study is interested in evaluating the oxidation process that causing redox blemishes on processed microfilms. Images on black and white films are typically formed by metallic silver in a gelatin binder. When exposed to a combination of moisture in the environment and pollutants in the air or contaminants in the film's enclosure, this image silver will corrode. The investigation and analysis made during this work proved that the oxidation agent produced by performing the hydrogen peroxide test, influenced only the silver particles although the gelatin layer and the film base did not suffer from any oxidation. The results of FTIR-ATR showed that the base and the gelatin were affected by hydrolysis regards to the high relative humidity required for the test. Applying a sacrifice layer by sputtering coating showed good results in reducing the formation of the redox blemishes especially in the case of using copper as a sputtering target comparing to zinc for cellulose acetate film samples.

Keywords: Cellulose Acetate Microfilm; Redox Blemishes; Hydrolysis; Oxidation;
Silver Gelatin; Sputtering; Zinc; Copper


D.S. Nitiu, A.C. Mallo, L.A. Eliades, M. Garcia Santa Cruz, M.C.N. Saparrat

Fungal Monitoring in an Exhibition Room with Egyptian Mummies in the Museum of Natural Sciences of La Plata, Argentina

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 291-306
The cultural properties kept in museums are exposed to different factors that may affect the integrity. The aims of the present study were i) to determine the environmental fungal load present both inside and outside the Egyptian Room of the Museum of Natural Sciences of La Plata, Argentina, as well as inside two showcases where Egyptian sarcophagi are preserved, along a one-year monitoring, and ii) to evaluate the possible impact of temperature and relative humidity on the preservation of these mummies. The fungal load was determined by means of a volumetric air sampling methodology and the environmental variables by means of specific instruments. The fungal load found in the four sites studied was of 32843,23 CFU/m3, belonging to 21 fungal taxa, mainly to the phylum Ascomycota. The most representative were Beauveria bassiana, Fusarium oxysporum, Penicillium sp. and Rhodotorula sp. (as a yeast representative), were common to the four sites, showing a significant similarity between the outdoor and indoor environments. The temperature of the exhibition room and that of the two showcases were either similar or lower than the values recommended by the UNI 10829:1999 standards. In contrast, throughout the year, the relative humidity recorded was higher than the recommended values.

Keywords: Environmental monitoring; Fungal load; Cultural heritage; Egyptian mummies; Museum of La Plata; Argentina

A. Sahab, A. Mounir, O. Hanafy, S. Badie

Antifungal Activity of Some Selected Fumigants Regularly Used Against Fungi Isolated from Repository of Dar- Al-Kottob of Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 307-316

The main goal of this work was to investigate the prevalence of fungi inside a repository of Dar al-Kutub during November 2017 and the biological fungicidal and fungistatic activities of some fumigants against isolated fungi. Indoor airborne fungi ranged from 10.482 to 83.857 cfu X102. Which were seven species belonged to five genera of filamentous fungi were detected and identified. The percentage abundance of the species Aspergillus flavus (27.11%), Aspergillus niger (22.03%) and Penicillium chrysogenum (23.73%) were present in high values. On the hand, the other fungal genera could be arranged in descending order as follows: Fusarium spp. (7.63%), Trichoderma spp. (4.24%) and Alternaria spp. (3.39%). The antifungal effectiveness of three selected fumigants (phostoxin, dettol+isopropanol and paraformaldehyde) was determined. Complete reduction (100%) in the linear growth by phostoxin of all tested fungi, whereas a high growth reduction was also observed by paraformaldehyde. A potent effect was observed by dettol+isopropanol which can be arranged on descending order as follows: Penicillium chrysogenum (96.30%), Trichoderma harzianum (73.00%), A. niger (69.93%), and then F. oxysporum (55.97%). The most effective concentration was 20%, whereas the lowest levels of inhibition was observed against T. harzianum (18.87%), followed by F. oxysporum (30.30%) at conc. 5%. Dettol and isopropanol formulation as well as para-formaldehyde had a significant fungicidal activity on the growth of all tested fungi). As no growth was appeared (100% inhibition) from the fungal disc taken from plates of both fumigants against F. oxysporum, T. harzianum and P. chrysogenum. But, phostoxin showed fungistatic activity as different levels of inhibition ranged from 6.66 -73.33% were observed from discs of all fungi.

Keywords: Fumigants; antifungal; Dettol; Para-formaldehyde; Phostoxin; Dar-elkottob.


S.S. Panda, G.N. Jena, D.B. Garnayak

Characterization of Representative Ancient Potteries: Chemical, Mineralogical and Morphological Studies

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 317-326
This paper explores the characterization of six potsherd samples from Udayagiri, India. X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray system (SEM-EDX) were used for the determination of the mineralogical, chemical and microstructural analysis of potsherd samples. RO, R2O3 and RO2 were deduced from chemical composition data using Seger molecular formula. Present study also emphasis on the investigation of different methodical approach in terms of firing temperature, clay mineral type and tempering material in the pottery making process of that era. The uses of a siliceous or non-calcareous raw material are probably related to the specific utilization of the pottery in ancient time. The presence of specific minerals in the pottery matrix indicates the practice of local clay mineral. The flux amount reflects of higher firing temperatures, while clay composition provides the information to understand production methodology. The tempering materials in all the samples can be observed in morphological images. The obtained results also showed that non- calcareous clay minerals were used for pottery production and potsherds were firing between the temperatures from 600 to 900 C degrees.

Keywords: Ancient pottery; XRF; FTIR; SEM-EDX; Firing temperature;

S. Eskandari, S. Eskandari

Effect of Fire on Soil Physical and Biological Characteristics of Forests in Northern Iran

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 327-334
This study was performed to investigate fire effects on some soil and biologic characteristics of Northern forests of Iran. The soil characteristics included soil moisture and soil particles. The biologic characteristics included leaf litter moisture and depth, forest ground cover and fallen trees. For this purpose, 70 samples of soil and leaf litter were collected in the burned and unburned areas. The sampling method was based on random-selecting method. The soil moisture and leaf litter moisture of samples were obtained by weighing the humid and dry samples in Soil Science Laboratory. Soil particles size was measured by hydrometer method in Soil Science Laboratory. For data analysis, the mean comparison test of two statistical societies was used because data include two groups (burned area and unburned area). Thus, Independent-Sample T test was applied to investigate the significant difference of soil and biologic characteristics in the burned and unburned areas. Results showed that there was a significant relation between mean of soil moisture, clay, silt and sand percent, leaf litter moisture, leaf litter depth and ground cover in the burned and unburned areas; while there was not a significant relation between fallen trees in the burned and unburned areas in this study.

Keywords: Fire; Leaf litter; Soil moisture; Soil particles; Fallen trees; Forest ground cover

I.A. Zakarya, S.N.B. Khalib, A.V. Sandu

The Study of Different Aeration Rate Effect During Composting of Rice Straw Ash and Food Waste in Managing the Abundance of Rice Straw at Paddy Field

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 335-342
The composting of rice straw ash with food waste and addition of effective microorganisms as an additive has been investigated by using the laboratory-scale of bin composter reactor at different aeration rates of 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8L/min.kg with an initial C:N ratio 30 of compost mixture. The physicochemical parameters were monitored for pH, temperature, C:N ratio and phtotoxicity in term of germination index during 30 days of composting period. The results showed the longest phase of thermophilic temperature, minimum C:N ratio and the maximum GI obtained at compost pile aerated with 0.6Lmin.kg compared to the other two aeration rate of 0.4L/min.kg and 0.8L/min.kg. In term of pH for all three treatments of compost pile, the values obtained are within a range that is acceptable for the matured compost.

Keywords: Composting; Aeration Rate; Rice Straw Ash; Food Waste

G. Deak, F.D. Dumitru, M.A. Moncea, A.M. Panait, A.G. Baraitaru, M.V. Olteanu, M.G. Boboc, S. Stanciu

Synthesis of ZnO Nanoparticles for Water Treatment Applications

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 343-350
Industrialization on a global scale has led to water pollution with a variety of persistent organic pollutants, highly toxic and hazardous to the living organisms and also difficult to remove with the existing wastewater treatment technologies. Various methods have been tested for removing these organic contaminants, among which nanotechnology appears to be one of the most promising approaches, as nanomaterials present larger specific surface area and particular physical, chemical and biological properties (developed due to small particle size) suitable for environmental applications. In recent years, SiO2, TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles have been the focus of interest in the wastewater treatment investigations. In the present paper, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized through the hydrothermal method. The concentration of the alkaline solution was varied in order to obtain ZnO nanoparticles with a high crystallinity degree. The obtained nanoparticles were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the concentration of the alkaline solution influences the size and shape of the particles.

Keywords: Siret river; Specific geological formations; River margins' expansion and reduction; Preserving the riverbed; Course evolution; Simulation

S.K. Maharjan

Local Adaptation Plan of Action Framework and Process in the Agriculture Sector in Nepal

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 351-364
Local Adaptation Plan of Action (LAPA) is recognized as a means to mainstream climate change adaptation into the development plans at the local level. The GoN developed NAPA and climate policy prior to LAPA and currently in the process of developing NAP. The implementation of the local adaptation plans has started in western Nepal under the NCCSP. This paper analyzes the LAPA initiatives and process focusing on agriculture including assessment of local climatic contexts, vulnerabilities, adaptations and barriers. Moreover, the paper presents the adaptation cases that has enhanced the awareness and adaptive capacity at the local level. The assessments followed the qualitative research, review and analysis using the participatory and socially inclusive approach. The adaptations were analyzed for their effectiveness in enhancing the adaptive capacity of poor and vulnerable. Furthermore, the institutional mechanism suitable for the LAPA were also assessed and analyzed. The paper concludes the appropriate procedure for LAPA design along with the potential actors and their roles. This paper also suggests the appropriate local government unit (LGU) for mainstreaming adaptation into the development process at the local level in the new governance system. Furthermore, the capacities of the communities and stakeholders need to be strengthened for effective implementation.

Keywords: Climate change; Adaptation; Local; Mainstreaming; Agriculture

B. Asir, S. Sundari, J. Doss

In Vitro Multiplication of Clinacanthus Nutans (Burm.f) Lindau. - A Medicinal Plant

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 365-370
The objective of this study was to develop a rapid system for generation of the important thai medicinal plant, Clinacanthus nutans from nodal explant. Single nodal explants were inoculated on basal MS medium containing 3% (W/V) sucrose, supplemented with different concentration and combinations of 6- benzyl aminopurine (BAP), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole -3 butyreric acid (IBA) for direct plant regeneration. Maximum number of shoots was observed on the medium containing 0.5 mg/L BAP after four weeks of culture. Regenerated shoots were separated and rooted on same half strength MS medium of supplemented with 1.5 mg/L alone for three weeks. Rooted plantlets were planted in sterile soil mix and gradually acclimatized to the green house environmental conditions. Hardened plantlets were maintained in the green house for the field transplantation.

Keywords: Clinacanthus nutants; MS medium; In vitro; Thai

E. Mosnegutu, V. Nedeff, C.C. Stingu (Palici), D. Chitimus, D.I. Rusu, I. Joita

Possibilities of Software Evaluation for the River Course Modification. Case Study: Siret River in Bacau Region Sector

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 371-380
The main purpose of this article is to introduce a method helping us to understand the evolution and changes that occur on a river route. Route transformations on a river flow are usually highlighted by maps or ortophotoplans. However, these are made at a certain time slot and thus they cannot reveal the factors affecting the river route. Therefore, in this article, based on three Siret river routes performed in 3 different time slots, 1954, 1980 and 2010 respectively, was intended to highlight the distribution mode of the flow velocity by using the Ansys-Fluent simulation software. Following the simulation, a series of helpful information revealed the concerned erosion areas, making thus possible the future assessment of the Siret river.

Keywords: Siret river; Specific geological formations; River margins' expansion and reduction; Preserving the riverbed; Course evolution; Simulation

F.H. Mohammad Yusop, F. Hamzah, S.F. Abdul Manaf

Characterisation and Solubility Studies on Microencapsulation of Clinachantus Nutans (Belalai Gajah) Utilizing Sago Starch

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 381-392
The present study was done to improve the wastewater treatment efficiency of the wastewater treatment plants which are found within the recirculated aquaculture systems. Initially, the research experiments were done in laboratory conditions with synthetic wastewater. The mobile bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) technology was improved by some of the authors. A new material and a new shape for biofilm carriers were proposed, realized and tested. Improvements in both wastewater treatment efficiency and the quantity of attached biofilm on the improved biofilm carriers were obtained. The capability of the MBBR to reduce the carbon and nitrogen compounds was also investigated.

Keywords: wastewater treatment; ammonia; biological oxygen demand; photosynthetic microorganisms; high density polyethylene; biofilm carriers; nitrification; denitrification

S. Chanthavong, I.E. Buot Jr.

Conservation Status of Plant Diversity at Dong Na Tard Provincial Protected Area, Lao People' Democratic Republic

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 393-4023
The conservation status of plant diversity in Dong Na Tard Provincial Protected Area (PPA) is still relatively unknown. This paper aimed to categorize and assess the threatened plants at the local level for effective park management. The current use of plants was documented using Key Informant Interviews (KIIs). There were 70 species in 33 families that were assessed. The conservation status of plant species was perceived by local people as very high importance (14.29%), high importance (62.86%), moderate importance (20%), low importance (1.43%), and very low importance (1.42%). Based on this study, all plant species were categorized as critically endangered (5.71% - CR), endangered (32.86% - EN), vulnerable (44.29% - VU), near threatened (15.71% - NT), and least concern (1.43% - LC). Data suggested an immediate need for conservation planning. Strong support for conservation programs and strict enactment of laws are imperative to address the threats to plant diversity loss.

Keywords: Dong Na Tard; Diversity; Utilization; Conservation status; Threatened species.

Publication date: 20.06.2019

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