International Journal of Conservation Science

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Print ISSN:   2067-533X
Online ISSN: 2067-8223
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Volume 8, Issue 1, 2017

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Research articles

P. Jin, F. Ruan, X. Yang, K. Liu, H. Zou, L. Ye, L. Gu

Assessment of Cleaning the Corrosion Layer of Plated Bronzes with a Complex Gel of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Carbomer

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 3-14

When unearthed from soil, many plated bronzes were covered with a thick layer of patina that hid their original shiny lustre. A sandwich structure is observed in their cross-section including superficial patina, plated layer and inner patina. In this paper, a hydrogel cleaner, composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Carbomer, and added by formic acid and cysteine, is introduced as de-rusting agent which can not only remove the patina from the surface of plated bronzes successfully, but also keep their original lustre.

Keywords: Plated bronze; Patina; De-rusting; Gel cleaning; PVA; Carbomer.

WA. Mohamed, N.M. Mohamed

Testing Coatings for Enameled Metal Artifacts

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 15-24
This research aims to test the efficiency of coating materials to protect Champlevé enameled silver and copper artifacts. Enameled copper and silver coupons were prepared to replicate original artifacts. Paraloid B-72 and microcrystalline wax were applied in different procedures onto test coupons then exposed to elevated relative humidity to perform an accelerated ageing condition. The exposed coupons were investigated to measure the color change and the weight gain occurred to evaluate the coatings performance and to compare the impact of changing application procedures of coatings on the protection effectiveness of enameled metals against corrosion and deterioration. The results indicated that the best coating procedure that met both aesthetic and corrosion protection was afforded by a monolayer of 3% Paraloid B-72.

Keywords: Metal artifacts; Champlevé enamel; Protective coatings; Paraloid B-72.

A. Bailao, F. Henriques, M.C. Cabral, A. Goncalves

Documentation in Conservation for the Retouching Process of a Painting by Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 25-34
In the documentation in conservation context, there is an increasing demand for precise and accurate data and also for full three dimensional records of the cultural heritage. This paper presents the study case of a painting by Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso before, during and after the retouching treatment. The work focuses on the use of open source systems, such as GIS and photogrammetry software, in order to produce accurate maps of object losses and realistic virtual 3D models enabling the study of artworks with a minimum budget and a low cost infrastructure.

Keywords: Documentation; photogrammetry; image-based modeling (IBM), Amadeo de Sousa-Cardoso, heritage conservation; retouching.

I. Carlan, B. Dovleac

3D Modelling of Arutela Roman Castrum Using Close-range Photogrammetry

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 35-42
State of the art of close-range photogrammetry reveals new methods for creation of 3D models for heritage and archaeological objects and sites. Effective and competent methodologies have been developed for surveying and modeling archaeological sites and thus provide high quality and accurate realistic textured models for better research, preservation, education and monitoring projects. A specific methodology was applied to produce a scale 3D model of “Arutela (Căciulata) Roman Castrum” in a digital environment. A complex product is created, with complemental geometry and texture. The accurate geometry and appearance details (size, shape, position and texture) can be used for a proper documentation, preservation and restauration applications.

Keywords: Close-range photogrammetry; Digital photographs; 3D modeling; Archaeological site; Heritage conservation.

G. Goli, L. Cocchi, M. Togni, M. Fioravanti

Test of a Device for the Active Control of Environmental Humidity in Museum Display Cases

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 43-50
A series of laboratory tests were conducted on a commercial device for active relative humidity control of display cases to assess the ability of the machine to control a medium format (3.45 m3) museum display case. An extreme museum environment with large relative humidity and temperature fluctuations was simulated and different air leakage rates were produced (0.1 - 0.5 - 6 AER/day) on a purposely-made display case. The machine was shown to work very effectively for both in humidify and dehumidifying for conditions corresponding to very well sealed ( AER 0.1) to medium sealed (AER 0.5). On a very poorly sealed enclosure (AER 6), the external environmental fluctuation resulted in internal fluctuations but the machine very effectively mitigated these effects. The use of the machine in positive pressure mode and (optional) recirculating mode was shown to be irrelevant to the ability of the machine to control the relative humidity. Positive pressure mode provides a constant flow to remove VOC's from the showcase (which could contribute to artefact degradation.), and to prevent ingress of ambient pollutants.

Keywords: Showcase; Climate; Active conditioning; Microclimate; Relative humidity

E.M. Osman, Y.E. Zidan, N.K. Fahim

The Determination of Conservation State of Archaeological Moroccan Kilim by Physical Analytical Methods

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 51-58
This paper present the strategies for identification the raw material and dyes used in old textile and deterioration and degradation statement of archaeological dyed samples by using physical techniques such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Samples were taken from morocco kilim which was suffering from several types of damage, as a result of natural ageing appearing in brittle fibres, fading in dyes in many parts of it and missing in a lot of parts in many places. Light microscope and SEM were used to identify the kind of fibres, their condition and surface morphology. XRD was used to identify mordant, impurities and dust. Various dyed samples were taken from different eight sites selected from the worst places in statement of damage in the kilim, and examined by optical microscope, XRD and Scanning electron microscope. Main results revealed that the raw material was wool with its significant morphology appearance. XRD analysis revealed that iron sulphate, Alum, copper sulphate, tin was the main mordant existed in. On one hand, these mordants were considered the most common mordants used in archaeological textiles, on the other hand it should be one of the deterioration and degradation factors for old samples. SEM showed the weakness, brittleness and friction existed in dyed wool samples, the reasons of deterioration/degradation was discussed. Finally, the previous analysis provided a suitable plan for treatment the archaeological dyed textile, as it could be helpful for conservator to have a good decision of the procedure and material should be used in the conservation process based on the previously obtained data analysis.

Keywords: Deterioration and degradation; Physical techniques; Dyed wool;
Archaeological textile; Mordant

A.C. Inigo, J. García-Talegon, S. Vicente-Tavera, S. Casado-Marín, S. Martin-Gonzalez

Multivariate Analyses of Soluble Salts Responsible for Pathologies in Granites of the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia, Spain

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 59-66

The aim of this work is to characterize the main pathologies caused by salt crystallization in granitic monuments (crusts, salt efflorescence, disaggregation and disaggregation with salt efflorescence). Water soluble ions were determined quantitatively. Using the Canonical Biplot multivariate method it was determined that: a) there is a relationship between the content of water soluble salts and the different identified pathologies; b) sulphate and NO3-, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ ions are the major components of salt efflorescence; c) carbonate is a major component of the crust; and d) the disaggregated granites, with or without salt efflorescence, have a low proportion of soluble salts but no predominant ion composition.

Keywords: Granite; Pathologies; Salt crystallization; Crust; Efflorescence; Disaggregation; Canonical Biplot

N. Buisson, C. Laffont, A. Pequignot, C. Badoual, P. Faulcon, C. Nich

New Insights into the Heart of Voltaire Using a Multidisciplinary Approach

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 67-80
A rare occasion to investigate the conservation mode of the heart of the philosopher Voltaire (1694–1778) presented itself following an incident with his statue at the National Library of France which enclosed the organ. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to propose and implement an improved reconditioning method for the organ. The study generated a better knowledge of the fabrication technique of funeral metallic boxes as well as a better understanding of the degradation process of both the organ and the box. The heart and its conditioning, as well as the volatile products (VOCs) released by the heart were analysed with nondestructive methods. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy associated with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX) were used for the identification of the metal, the preparation and the gilding of the metal box. The heart-shaped metal box is made of lead with tin welds. The box received a double layer white lead preparation. The binding of the preparation is probably of proteinic nature. Gold leaf had been deposited on a gilding bole made of a mixture of red ochre and minium, enhancing the preciousness of this particular artefact. Identification of VOCs released from the heart done by SPME fibres followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the origin of the strong smell, essentially acetic acid. From the inside of the heart-shaped metal box, emission of VOCs suggest that the organ may have been embalmed in a liquid containing alcohol (spirit of wine), resins, natural extracts or essences from cedar or lavender. Histological analysis of tissue samples showed the presence of striated muscle fibres. These results helped to determine the optimal reconditioning of the heart. It has been decided to keep the organ inside its metal box in a stabilized environment with static anoxia, in order to preserve the heart for future generations while protecting the tissues against oxygen degradation for further investigations.

Keywords: Heart of Voltaire; Gilding; Metal analysis; SEM-EDX; XRF; VOCs; CT scanner; Histology

P. Spiridon, I. Sandu, L. Stratulat

The Conscious Deterioration and Degradation of the Cultural Heritage

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 81-88
The present paper aims to present the different forms of vandalism resulted from the human activities and manifestations that harm the environment and/or put in danger the cultural heritage assets. For this purpose, we selected a number of relevant cases in the field in order to identify the real reasons behind these actions that have often mutilated the artifacts. The results revealed that anthropic factors are just as dangerous as the natural factors for the cultural heritage, and that there are many different manifestations, controllable or uncontrollable, based on intention, imprudence or omission.

Keywords: cultural heritage; conservation; vandalism; destruction; graffiti; demolition

K. Kostrakiewicz-Gieralt

The Impact of Habitat Conditions on the Performance of Generative Ramet Clusters of High Medicinal Value, Rare Species Betonica Officinalis l.

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 89-104
Observations were carried out in the years 2014-2015 in moor grass meadows, old fields, willow thickets and macroforbs. In the successive study sites, the height of the standing vegetation and soil moisture gradually increased, whilst the light availability decreased. Stable in consecutive seasons, the total number of ramets per generative ramet cluster achieved the lowest values in willow thickets due to mechanical suppression of vegetative growth by the robust underground organs of neighbouring plants. Constant during the study period, the share of generative stems decreased in successive study sites, while the percentage of leaf rosettes showed an inverted tendency. The increase of height of generative stems and number of flowers per inflorescence in consecutive Patches, as well as the augmentation of length of flowers in time and space, might trigger an improvement of generative reproduction in a crowded environment. The increase of the number of nodes and dimensions of cauline leaf blades in successive Patches and the augmentation of the number and dimensions of rosette leaves in the time and space might contribute to greater efficacy of light capture in growing shading. Summarizing the plasticity of traits might assure the spread of generative ramet clusters in open habitats, as well as their persistence in crowded sites.

Keywords: Cauline leaves; Flowers; Generative stem; Rosette; Spatial and temporal variability

N. Sarataphan, W. Narongwanichgarn, S. Maneerat

Phylogenetic Analysis of a Thai Wild Water Buffalo (bubalus arnee) Through Mitochondrial Control Region

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 105-112
Asiatic wild water buffaloes (Bubalus arnee) are categorized as endangered species on the IUCN Red List, and distribute only in Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Bhutan, Cambodia and Thailand. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between the maternal lineages of a Thai wild water buffalo in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and other domesticated water buffaloes. Mitochondrial control region sequence were analysed in comparison with published sequences of domestic water buffaloes. The DNA fragment size of 396 bp indicated 55 polymorphic nucleotide sites with 50 transitions and 5 transversions. The maximum likelihood tree revealed that the Thai wild water buffalo located in lineage A of one major swamp water buffalo clade. The Thai wild water buffalo genetic material has more similarities with that of the swamp water buffalo from lineage A, than that from lineage B. Median-joining phylogenetic network and mutation position showed that the evolution of the Thai wild water buffalo happened prior to domesticate swamp water buffaloes. Analysis of mitochondrial control region sequence of the wild water buffalo showed independent maternal origin, separating from other domesticated swamp water buffaloes.

Keywords: Thai wild water buffalo; control region; mitochondrial DNA

D.R. Shah, D.J. Gavali

Floral Diversity in Vadodara Gardens, Gujarat, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 113-120
Garden biodiversity is an integral part of the urban ecosystem and play an important role in improving green infrastructure and aid in climate change adaptations. Little research is available on the floral diversity of the parks and gardens. The present study is an attempt to document the floral diversity of 77 gardens in Vadodara city and elucidate trends based on the size of the gardens. Study indicated presence of 217 species belonging to 72 families from the gardens of Vadodara city. The floristic data revealed that around 53% of the species represented indigenous species and 47% belonged to exotic species. Paper concluded that diversity is more in the small gardens as compared to large sized garden, where plantation of few species in undertaken. Species suitable to the semi-arid climate with low water requirement dominated the gardens indicative of better management practices and adapt to climate change.

Keywords: Garden; Urban ecosystem; Exotic species; Plant Diversity, Gujarat;

M. Nuruzzaman, A. Al-Mamun, M.N. Salleh

Challenges in the Rehabilitation of the Pusu River

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 121-130
River rehabilitation efforts in the world are increasing to conserve the ecosystem. These efforts, generally, face challenges from various sources. Major constraints which can turn such a program into a failed project have been discussed explicitly in the first portion of this paper. In the latter portion of the paper, focus has been given on the problems of rehabilitation of the Pusu Rive at Gombak District in Malaysia. Water sampling from the river and its catchment has been done in different periods and events. Pollution loadings into the river have been calculated for different parameters. Based on analysis, sand mining activities, point source pollution and catchment landuse have been identified as the major impediments of Pusu River rehabilitation. These problems must be addressed before the rehabilitation of the river to ensure the rehabilitation of the river is successful.

Keywords: River rehabilitation; Pollution; Targets; Impediments; Failure reasons.

M.Z. Haque, M.I.H. Reza

Salinity Intrusion Affecting the Ecological Integrity of Sundarbans Mangrove Forests, Bangladesh

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 131-144
The raising of the sea causes salinity intrusion into fresh water zones such as river, lake, floodplain and other lowlands. Salinity intrusion in the Mangrove forest is a continuous process. However, due to the increasing salinity ecological integrity of the Sundarbans have been largely affected. The compositional and functional aspects of flora and fauna have been changing at a great deal. The objective of this study is to delineate the changes of the structure and composition of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest due to excess salinity intrusion and how salinity affect its biodiversity, wildlife habitat and other ecosystem components. This study reviewed related literature gathered through an extensive survey of various websites and the secondary data obtained from various departments with necessary modifications. The land use maps collected from the Bangladesh Forest Department were interpreted to achieve an elaborate classification of forest type and its gradual change with increasing salinity. Observations at the periphery of Sundarbans explore the effect of salinity on the population, livestock, aquatic species and the paddy fields. We used ArcGIS 9.3 to visualize the salinity prone zones, the boundary of administrative zones and the forest type to identify the causes and intensity of the issues, and to suggest the appropriate mitigating measures. The study states that the salinity intrusion causes the reduction of fresh water availability in Sundarbans. As a result, fresh water loving species are replaced by the species of the saline zone. Most of the areas are found with the small and bushy typed species that reduce biomass in comparison with their standard volume. The study reveals the effects of salinity intrusion in the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest which may affect its compositional, structural and functional integrity. Long-term and short-term policies are recommended to resolve the issues.

Keywords: Salinity intrusion; Ecological integrity; Mangrove ecosystem; Biodiversity; Wildlife habitat; Structure and composition of mangrove species

P.C. Sahu

Groundwater Resource Conservation and Augmentation in Hard Rock Terrain: An Integrated Geological and Geo-Spatial Approach

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 145-156
Digapahandi block of Ganjam district is a chronically drought prone and economically backward area of Odisha. The agricultural lands which are mostly rain fed bear the adverse effects of drought resulting in loss of crops. Surface water irrigation is very limited and not dependable due to vagaries of monsoon rainfall. Drinking water problem is very acute during summer as most of the wells go dry. Keeping this fact in view the research was aimed at locating site specific artificial recharge structures for groundwater resource conservation and augmentation in hard rock terrain. Satellite IRS- IC LISS III data have been used to prepare various thematic maps. The study reveals that the major litho units are granitic gneisses, khondalite and charnockite suite of rocks. The geomorphic units are pediplain, flood plain, denudational and structural hills .Four sets of lineaments have been identified. The trends of lineaments are broadly NE-SW, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and N-S. The interpreted data is cross-checked and confirmed during field visits. Based on the hydro-geological set-up, suitable site- specific artificial recharge structures such as percolation tank, check dam, contour bund, gully plug and vegetative measures have been suggested to maintain the balance between the recharge and draft.

Keywords: Conservation; Artificial recharge; Hydro-geomorphology; Lineament; Drought prone

M. Asyari, Udiansyah, Bagyoyanuwiadi, M.L. Rayes

Management Policy Formulation of Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve Related with Mangrove Forest Degradation at South Borneo, Indonesia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 157-164
Indonesia is an archipelago that has the largest mangrove forest in the world. Strategic role of forest resources encourages the need for sustainable management of mangrove forests. This study aims to formulate strategies for management of mangrove forests related with degradation of land use in Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve area at Kotabaru Regency, using Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP) approachment. The results of study explained that the hierarchical structure I which consists of the supporting factors for socio-ecological, sosio-cultural and sosio-economic aspects got score 1,809; 1,682 and 0,239 respectively. It shows that the supporting factor which based on socio-ecological aspects, believe to be the most dominant factor for sustainable and sustainability Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve mangrove forest management policy formulation. Based on the hierarchical structure II, conclude that the socio-economic indicators, ie: utilization based to the absence of access to land ownership, capitalization of the business and source of livelihood got score 1,717; 0,781 and 0,874 respectively. On the socio-ecological indicators can be concluded that the understanding of mangrove forest conservation got score 1,027, environmental services is 0,753 and the ecological functions of mangrove forest is 0,735. Socio-cultural indicators which become the foundation supporting the utilization of sustainable and sustainability Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve mangrove forest, namely: the utilization for cultural function / local wisdom / pond got score 1,035. The utilization for entertainment functions / recreation / beach tourism got a score 0,941 and the utilization for educational function got score 0,734.

Keywords: Mangrove forests; Analysis Hierarchy Process; Teluk Kelumpang.

Publication date: 15.03.2017

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