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Volume 9, Issue 4, 2018

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Research articles

S. Andreou, P. Sklavos, A.A. Kokkinos, D.T.G. Katerelos

Restoration of a Casella Brothers’ Acoustical Guitar and Construction of an Identical Copy

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 613-628

Musical instruments consist a significant part of the global cultural heritage. Everywhere in the world such important artefacts can be traced and preserved for future generations as an important part of human heritage. A century old acoustical guitar was found in the Kefalonia Island, Greece, that was survived from time wear and earthquakes attacks. In this paper the procedure followed for the restoration of this guitar is presented. Old musical instruments, even the restored ones, should be treated carefully and stored appropriately, in order to be protected. Thus, the idea is to construct exact possible copies that could present publically their performance that is the sound they produce. Such a copy was designed and constructed for the above mentioned guitar and the two instruments were evaluated for their mechanical and acoustical characteristics.

Keywords: Musical Instruments; Guitar restoration; Replica; Identical guitars.


P.V. Alfieri, R. Lofeudo, G. Canosa

Impregnant Formulation to the Preservation, Protection and Consolidation of Wood Heritage Assets

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 629-640
The protection of cultural heritage is an integral part of the world's material wealth. The cultural heritage, movable and immovable, together with the natural environment, represents values that contribute to the education and social culture of the community. It also has a significant economic impact because, it represents the basic prerequisite for a tourism industry. Therefore, the modern developing based on non-polluting technological products for the protection of patrimonial is needed. Also, it is necessary to build a bridge between the basic knowledge generated as a product of scientific research and applied science. The knowing of what kind of deterioration occurs and how it impacts the physical-mechanical properties of the materials are important issues and, that must be considered so that the constructions made can be adequately conserved and/or consolidated. Wood was treated with an innovate formulation based on silanes (methyltriethoxysilane, MTES and n-octyltryethoxysilane, OTES) to achieve the protection and the consolidation of the heritage assets. The performance of treatment about dimensional stability, fire and biodeterioration/biodegradation resistance was investigated. It was concluded that the treatment resulted effective as a protective and consolidate lasur system based on silanes by surface treatment for wood heritage assets.

Keywords: Heritage; Old wood, Consolidation, Treatment for preservation; Restoration; Protection


Y. Yuan, J. Mi, X. Wang, Z. Fu, C. Meng, H. Zhang

Evaluation of the Organosilicon Materials for Ancient Grey Bricks Preservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 641-652
Grey bricks were produced manually and used as the major traditional building materials in ancient China. However, the characteristics of grey bricks make them vulnerable to water, salt and other environmental factors. Organosilicon materials have been tested as the effective protective agents for silicate based stones. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of different organosilicon materials on grey bricks by total and half immersions. The penetration depths, appearance alterations, water adsorptions, hydrophobic properties, porosities and compressive strengths were measured after the treatments. The samples were also experienced the salt solution immersion, freeze-thaw and UV aging tests to evaluate the durability of different preservation treatments. It is found that different characteristics of the organosilicon materials lead to different preservation performances, but it remains difficult to determine an appropriate material for the preservation of ancient architectures built with grey bricks, considering the consolidation performance, water resistance property and durability.

Keywords: Grey bricks; Organosilicon; Preservation; Deterioration and degradation cycles

A. Sánchez Ortiz, E. Rodríguez González de Canales, O. Cantos Martínez, J. Sánchez de Lollano Prieto

Comparative Study of Aqueous Cleaning Systems for Wax Sculptures

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 653-667
The accumulation of particles of dirt on the surface of ceroplastic sculptures is a major cause of deterioration and has negative consequences for the conservation of the collections. To eliminate these deposits of contamination, the specialised literature proposes the use of a range of physical and chemical methods. This article evaluates various aqueous systems, with and without surfactants, that are specifically adapted to this type of object, including an emulsion formulated using a gel thickened with a polyacrylic acid derivative. All of the cleaning systems tested have been chemically analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), in addition to observing the surfaces under optical magnification before and after applying the cleaning substance. The results obtained are presented based on a qualitative analysis of the effectiveness demonstrated by each of the systems tested.

Keywords: Ceroplastics; Sculpture; Scientific collections; Conservation; Cleaning test; Solubility.

E. Cantisani, C.G.R. Tognon, S. Caciagli, B. Salvadori

Outdoor Art: Cataloguing the Public Contemporary Sculptures in Florence

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 429-438
This paper reports the results of a project aimed at documenting contemporary outdoor sculptures in the city of Florence (Italy). A total of 80 public outdoor sculptures dating from 1910 to 2010 and including works by Folon, Botero, Moore, and Pepe, located over an area of 102 Km2 were catalogued in the various districts of the town. A comprehensive file was created for each sculpture with information on the location, artist, materials, historical and technical notes, state of conservation. Interviews with living artists (Onofrio Pepe, Piero Gensini, Roberto Coccoloni, Silvano Porcinai, Antonio di Tommaso, Roberto Barni, Giuliano Vangi, Marcello Guasti) were also carried out in order to glean information on the materials and techniques used, to better understand the “meanings” of their artworks and to obtain recommendations regarding the conservation procedures. The importance of information collected from artists together with the indications relating to the conservation of contemporary artworks are well known at an international level, aimed at a fruitful interaction between the arts and sciences as well as at planning appropriate maintenance procedures.

Keywords: Outdoor public contemporary sculpture; Catalogue; Materials; Interview

M.K. Khalaf, M.M. Abdeelmegeed

Assessment of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Masonry Building Materials in Historic Military Towers in Alexandria - Egypt: A Case Study

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 677-688
Historic masonry structures must have a full characterization of its building materials before starting in any rehabilitation procedures. As the same in medicine field, where, any treatment procedures must be preceded by a correct diagnosis. Mechanical and physical properties assessment gives important information about the current situation and a full characterization of building materials used in historical masonry structures. Limestone and lime or gypsum mortar is the most common masonry types used in construction of historic military structures in Alexandria, Egypt. The paper is concerned with assessment of building materials used in historical military towers in Alexandria - Egypt, which over the years its building materials suffered a lot of damage phenomena due to various causes (internal and external factors). The methodology, calibrated on historic tower No. 3 located in Alexandria –Egypt dating back to19th century. The methodology followed in the paper to assessment of masonry used in military structures allowed not only to assessment and record their properties but also to define and record the relation between building materials properties, surrounding environmental conditions and deterioration phenomena they present.

Keywords: Masonry; Military towers; Building materials; Damage; Deterioration phenomena; Sampling; Petrographic properties

T.A. Salah, N.S.A. Hagaggi

Study of the Effect of Extract Salix Mucronata Thunb Leaves as a Bacterial Antagonist on Some Bacteria Isolated from the Archaeological Manuscripts

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 689-696

This paper focused on studying the bacterial deterioration of the manuscript at Al-Azhar library in Cairo, Egypt. The partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that the two bacterial isolates AN1 and AN2 were Acinetobacter indicus and Exiguobacterium aurantiacum respectively. The present study investigated the antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Salix mucronata Thunb leaves against the two isolates. It is shown that the extract at different concentrations exhibited considerable effects on the growth of the two isolates. So, we suggested that Salix mucronata Thunb leaves extract can be used as a natural growth control to reducing the degradable effect of these bacterial causative agents that attack books and manuscripts kept in libraries.

Keywords: Antibacterial; Deterioration, Library; Manuscript; Salix mucronata Thunb


M. Singh, S.V. Kumar

Characterization of Ancient Lime Plasters of the Historical Sea Fort of Sindhudurg

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp.697-708
The paper reports the formulation of a new lime plaster on the basis of the chemical and mineralogical characterization of the plasters of Sindhudurg Fort in western India. The plaster samples extracted from the fort’s walls and mount were studied using petrological microscope, X-ray fluorescence Spectroscopy (XRF), X- ray diffraction studies (XRD), Fourier Transform infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and thermal analysis. The granulometric analysis indicates that the plasters were prepared by mixing coarse to medium grained sands that clearly show fracture pointing towards mechanical mixing. The FTIR spectrum of the plaster indicates atomic disorder in the anthropogenic calcite crystals. Thermal analysis shows presence of re-carbonated lime as part of the binder is perfectly crystallized. Compact microstructures were observed under SEM with aggregates well embedded in the matrix. Thermal analysis of the plaster shows presence of re-carbonated lime as part of the binder is perfectly crystallized. Compositional similarities were noted between the mount and fort wall lime plasters, which were prepared by mixing aggregates of basaltic origin with varied grain size and shape. The present study is a holistic approach to prepare compatible plasters required for the restoration of the site and similar nearby monuments.

Keywords: Sindhudurg; Sea Fort; Lime plaster; Aggregates; Calcite; Quartz.

S. Abdelaal

New Approach of Characterization and State of Painted Reliefs In Petosiris Tomb, Tuna El-Gebel, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 709-722
The aim of this study is to identify the components and assess the current state of the painted reliefs in the funerary tomb of Petosiris, which is located in Tuna el-Gebel in the province of Minia, Southern Egypt. The tomb has been dated to the late 4th and early 3rd centuries. It is considered one of the most important archaeological tombs in Egypt because its inscriptions include some of the Pharaonic rituals. These inscriptions were considered an important archaeological record, since the containment of historical information, Pharaonic scenes, rituals and those painted reliefs have been carried out with a very impressive technology in the implementation and use of pigments. The tomb and its painted reliefs suffered from severe damage factors that threaten and even foreshadows the disappearance and loss of these inscriptions. Accordingly, the aim of the work in this article was to study the techniques that were used in the painting process, assess the conditions of the painted inscriptions, the characterization of the pigments and the organic medium used. A range of modern and sensitive examination and analysis methods have been used to provide us with information about the components of the tomb and painted compositions. The analytical study was performed using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy / Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The examination was carried out using optical microscope, polarized microscope and scanning electron microscopy. The investigation of samples showed the use of Egyptian blue pigment as a pigment for blue color. Hematite used to get the red color, Goethite for yellow, a mixture of carbon and hematite for black and Celadonite ferrous as pigment material for green. Moreover, egg yolk used as organic binder in the painted reliefs of the tomb.

Keywords: Tomb; Painted Reliefs; Pigments; Organic Medium; XRD; Egypt.

M.S. Legas, B.T. Mamo

Impact of Human Activities on Wildlife: The Case of Nile Lechwe in Gambella National Park Southwest Ethiopia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 723-732
Assessing human threatening factors of wildlife is the base in determining and proposing appropriate conservation measures of biological diversity. The present study was conducted to assess the impact of human activities on the wildlife of the Gambella National Park, Southwestern Ethiopia from October 2015 to March 2016, specifically the case of the Nile Lechwe (Kobus megaceros). The data in this study was gathered using Structured Questioners among the sample of 384 respondents. In addition to the questioner survey, 6 focus group discussions one per each study villages were held in order to investigate the major human factors that affect the Nile Lechwe population. Data on the threatening factors was compared by chi-square test and descriptive statistics using SPSS version 20 software. Out of the 384 respondents, agricultural investment, illegal hunting, overgrazing, rice cultivation in the area and habitat loss were the most predominant human factors that affect the Nile Lechwe. Agricultural expansion and, respectively, illegal hunting were the highest human impact on the Nile Lechwe. Most of the respondents replied that they used hunting as a primary and secondary professional activity across the study villages. Before designing and implementing any development investment, particularly large-scale agricultural expansions, the government and other stakeholders should give consideration and attention to the rapidly declining natural resource beside to the development. Therefore, designing appropriate eco-friendly managements with options must be adopted to mediate the effects and minimize future impacts.

Keywords: Agriculture; Anthropogenic disturbance; Habitats; Nile lechwe; Gambella National park; Wildlife

B. Ngilangwa, R. Meney, C Msafiri

Exploration of a Future Scene for Community Based Tourism in the Southern Part of Serengeti Ecosystem: A Case Study of Mwiba Wildlife Ranch, Meatu, Tanzania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 733-748
Community Based Tourism (CBT) is one of the fast growing segments in Tourism industry, and the most acceptable tool for sustainable development especially in the developing world. Through CBT, local communities earn revenues that directly improve their livelihoods and managing sustainably the biodiversity. Furthermore, it improves the level of transparency, governance and technology transfer among themselves. This study aims to explore the role and the potentiality of community based sustainable tourism scene of Mwiba wildlife Ranch, which is located on the Southern part of the Serengeti ecosystem. The study took Mwiba wildlife ranch as the case study due to the fact that it is the first ever wildlife ranch in Tanzania and it is operated through public-private partnership whereby the land is solely owned by Makao village. The study results show that the ranch contributes significantly in improvement of socio-economic development for the Makao village communities and Tanzania in general through the payments of several fees, provision of full time and part time employments and in the conservation of both endangered and threatened wildlife species. Finally the study identified some conservation and management challenges such as livestock encroachment, boundary dispute and lack of transparency and accountability in terms of the uses of tourism benefits that accrued from the ranch.

Keywords: Mwiba Wildlife Ranch; Makao Open Area; Friedkin Conservation Fund Limited; Mwiba Holdings Limited; Environmental education; Community-Based Tourism and Community involvement.

O. Bajpai, V. Dutta, L.B. Chaudhary, J. Pandey

Key Issues and Management Strategies for the Conservation of the Himalayan Terai Forests of India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 749-760
The Himalayan Terai forests are a major habitat for a variety of terrestrial biodiversity, with distinct extents of ecosystems, abundance and distribution of species and coverage of protected areas. This lowland region is mainly characterised by tall grasslands, scrub savannah, Sal forests, wetlands, and swamps. The Terai eco-region, shared by India and Nepal, is one of the prominent areas of India from a biodiversity point of view. It is situated along the foothills of the central Himalaya range, in the north of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, with a forest covers of ca. 10,000 km2 in India. The Terai eco-region contains dense forests, savannahs and grasslands, providing critical habitats for many endangered large mammals, including tigers, elephants and rhinoceroses. Currently, the forest of this region is losing its biodiversity because of natural and anthropogenic factors. Because of the high agricultural productivity of the Terai areas, rising aspirations for better living conditions, development activities, industries and road & rail networks, the degradation and fragmentation of these forests have increased in recent years. This paper presents key issues and management strategies for the conservation of the Himalayan Terai forests of India, along with some suggestions to overcome the impacts of natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

Keywords: Natural disturbances; Anthropogenic disturbances; Conservation management; Himalayan Terai

A. Sabdono, O.K. Radjasa

Early Assessment of the Organochlorine Pesticides Pollution of Coral Reefs Ecosystem Along Jepara Coastal Waters, Java Sea

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 761-770
The contamination of seawater, sediments and coral tissues by organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) have presumed serious problems due to their persistence and toxicity. The research objectives were to determine the pesticide usage, occurrence, and toxicity of OCPs on Jepara coast. A questioner observation was used to inventory the types of pesticides used. Gas Chromatography equipped with Flame Photometric Detector (FID) detector was used to analyze selected pesticide concentrations of samples. The acute chronic exposure was used to investigate the toxicity effect of organochlorine on corals. The findings survey showed that farmers were most commonly using Gramoxone in the Jepara coastal regions, followed by Carbamate, Sevin, Converse, and Dupont. The farmers used no more OCPs.The pesticide analyses showed that the detected compounds in the coral samples were Lindane (γ-BHC) and Endrine with the range concentrations from ‹nd to 0.011 and from ‹nd to 0.15mg·g-1, respectively. There were no organochlorine compounds determined in the water and sediment samples. The toxicity study showed that corals stressed and dead after 24h organochlorine exposure. The OCPs could kill corals in low concentration in the brief exposure. While small amounts of a contaminant organochlorines can still lead to detectable in Jepara coastal waters.

Keywords: Coral reefs; Pesticides; Organochlorine; Jepara; Java Sea

N.H. Nik Raikhan, A.R. Khairul Izwan

The Impeding of Acidithiobacillus Thiooxidans Microbial Induced Corrosion (MIC) Using Bacterial Biofilms Mediated Interactions

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 771-776
Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans has been confirmed to promote for a fast microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on a surface of a metal coupon in 7 days of incubation with oxygen reliable in the peptone medium. This research is conducted to clarify the mutual interactions between biofilm and the metal substratum and to further the study on the direction of biofilm influence on the metal as into a corrosion inhibition. The use of symbiont biofilm between Actinomycete and Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been proved to inhibit the MIC process as early as the third day through growth performance of the biofilm formation. We have studied the impeding process using the mediated interactions and have reported that Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans cells are smaller and thicker apart from its slower growth due to the formation of the biofilm of the microbial cell consortia. All the 3 species have significantly shared the environment, using the peptone in the medium and did not cause any pit formation or started any corrosion sign on the metal surfaces, suggesting that the great tolerance between the species has achieved the aim to reduce bio-corrosion using biofilm consortia. This evidence proved that MIC can be eradicated using other microbes or microbial interaction at the beginning of colonization.

Keywords: Biogenic sulfide corrosion; Microbial induced corrosion (MIC); Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans; P. aeruginosa; Biofilm; Metal corrosion.

M. Bheemalingappa, M.V. Suresh Babu, B.R. Prasad Rao

Diversity and Phytosociological Attributes of Trees of Baratang Island, Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 777-794
In the present study we have analysed the tree species diversity and other phytosociological attributes of trees of Baratang Island, located in Middle Andamans. A total of 234 tree species representing 164 genera and 59 families were recorded in the sampled units. A total of 8657 tree individuals were enumerated. The range of tree density among the grids is 162-403 trees per 0.5ha. The most dominant species are Pterocarpus dalbergioides, Rhizophora apiculata, Gyrocarpus americanus, Tetrameles nudiflora, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Lagerstroemia hypoleuca, Terminalia bialata, Bambusa schizostachyoides, Rhizophora mucronata and Parishia insignis. The mean+SD basal area in the sampled grids was 21.59± 13.70 m2 ha-1 and ranged as low as 3.58 m2ha-1 to high as 65.03 m2ha-1. The overall population structure of tree species shows a reverse J-shaped population. The study gives an understanding of the diversity and pattern of tree population which will be of immense use in future forest conservation and management.

Keywords: Baratang Island; Middle Andamans; Tree species; Phytosociological attributes.

A.V. Tache, I.C.A. Sandu, O.C. Popescu, A.I. Petrisor

UAV Solutions for the Protection and Management of Cultural Heritage. Case Study: Halmyris Archaeological Site

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 795-804
Long-term cultural heritage protection is an essential condition for the sustainable development and preservation of territorial identity. Good documentation and registration of heritage objects allows for knowing, preserving and passing them to the future generations. Cultural heritage registration currently uses different techniques and methods of documentation, especially in archeology. In order to document archaeological sites and obtain their 3D digital models, several methods are possible, such as the combination of terrestrial recording and photogrammetric aerial methods, using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) - drones. GIS and GPS were used to obtain the contours coordinates for several archaeological sites in Tulcea County from 2007 location data from a geospatial system for the location and protection of archaeological sites in conjunction with the UAV technology (a multi-rotor drone), along with a high-precision GPS (GPS Rover GNSS RTK ComNav T300), and specific software like Mission Planner and Agisoft Photoscan, for their accurate fit into the digital map of the county, aiming for a better protection of the historical site. The final result is a 3D model of Halmyris Citadel (Murighiol, Tulcea County), which can be used to help preserving the archeological site, and serve as a base for future on-site restoration works.

Keywords: Cultural Heritage; Unmanned Aerial Vehicle; 3D Modelling; Global Positioning System (GPS); Archaeological site; orthophoto; Digital Elevation Model (DEM).

Y. Trisurat

Planning Thailand’s Protected Areas in Response to Future Land Use and Climate Change

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 805-820
Only limited research on conservation planning to mitigate the impacts of synthetic land use and climate change have been conducted in Asia. The objectives of this research were to determine shifts in habitats of 17 mammal species resulting from land-use and climate change scenarios in 2050 in northern Thailand and to assess the proposed expansion of protected areas to mitigate the predicted impacts. Qualitative vulnerability assessment of species was determined by using national conservation status, shifts in distribution and coping capacity of protected areas. The potential expansion areas were identified using gravity model. The results indicated that the existing protected areas cannot guarantee the long-term survival of many species. Most selected species would substantially shift their current distributions and will be upgraded from moderate to high-risk. The proposed expansion areas of 5,200 km2 or 3% of the region would substantially minimize the risk level and increase the average coping capacity of the protection of suitable habitats from 82% as the current plan to 90%. Such patches adjoining existing protected areas should be included in the current system, while patches that are relatively far should be managed as stepping stones or habitat corridors to facilitate movements of wildlife in the landscape.

Keywords: Adaptation; Conservation planning; Mammal species; Species distribution; Species vulnerability; Thailand

K. Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt, C.C. Palici, A. Stachurska-Swakoń, V. Nedeff, I. Sandu

The Causes of Disappearance of Sword Lily Gladiolus Imbricatus l. from Natural Stands - Synthesis of Current State of Knowledge

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 821-834
The sword lily Gladiolus imbricatus L. is a clonal plant covering Central and Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean, Caucasia and West Siberia. The aforementioned species is included in numerous national Red Books or Lists due to the progressive decrease of stands. The present paper reviews the factors threatening the occurrence and condition of Gladiolus imbricatus populations in natural localities. The largest threat is connected with transformation of meadows and expansion of urban areas.

Keywords: Sword lily; Natural localities; Population abundance; Threatened species; Molinion.

S. Hemeda, M. Khalil, A. Shoeb, A.A. El Aziz

The Effectiveness of Nano Materials and Nano-Modified Polymers for Preservation of Historic Brick Masonry in Rashid, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 821-834
The Rosetta, (Rashid City) of Egypt is considered the second-largest open-air museum after Cairo city. Historic brick masonries are exposed to aggressive environmental and geotechnical conditions especially the ground water rise factor. The building materials in the historic buildings in this city are suffered from many factors and forces of damage and instability, which caused the structural and out of plane deficiencies. Al-Mahalli mosque is considered the largest central mosque in the city is threatened of damage and structural problems as a result of mechanical, physiochemical and biological deterioration factors. From the mosque survey we found that the ground water, salt weathering, rain as well as earthquake, vibration levels, pollution and human damage factors are the most important ravages that threaten the ancient buildings in rational overall domestic and mosque in particular. The assessment of the current state and the development of appropriate restoration strategy were performed including the analytical study of the main construction materials. The pilot study was performed on samples of fired bricks using some traditional protective and consolidating materials as well as some nano materials to choose the best one in the treatment and maintenance of historic fired brick. The evaluation methodology is performed using a set of stress analysis of the treated specimen processed and compared with non-treated or standard samples that were not exposed to the processors, as well as appoint resistant of red bricks using the ultrasonic velocity test PUNDT also the physical properties of the samples including the micro porosity and finally using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and polarizing light microscopy (PLM) to investigate the treated samples. The results proved the superiority of the samples that have been strengthened by nano silica concentration of 1.5% and nano titanium concentration of 1.5% with Wacker Bs15 concentration in 20% with water, which was given the code (J).

Keywords: Rashid; Mechanical properties; Physical properties; Red bricks; Nano materials

Publication date: 15.12.2018

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