International Journal of Conservation Science

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Volume 9, Issue 2, 2018

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Research articles

M. Bernabei

Historical and Cultural Framing of a Medieval Wooden Artwork through Dendrochronology

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 201-208

A small wooden cabin has been analyzed through dendrochronology. The artifact is a choir built by the lords to attend sacred functions while separated from the rest of the hall. The artwork was attributed to the workshop of Arduino da Baiso, but the wooden structure is not entirely convincing because of a stylistic incongruity between the lower carved part and the simple linear cusp, whose panels inlaid with floral motifs are very close to certain Florentine marquetry. Dendrochronological analysis demonstrates that the whole structure of the choir is coeval and that the panels of the two parts come from the same batch of trunks. This means that the entire choir was designed and built by the same workshop with fir wood, probably coming from the Tuscan Emilian Apennines.

Keywords: Dendrochronology; Inlay; Wooden sculpture; Medieval wooden art; Dating.

L. da C. Carvalho

Investigation of Silver Metal Clays using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 209-218
Precious metal clay is a popular material with jewellery makers. Its plasticity permits the creation of intricate designs practically indistinguishable from pieces produced by ordinary metalsmithing techniques. Metal clays may not have entered museum collections yet but will inevitably do so as single or composite objects - but should they be conserved like ordinary metal objects? This study examines the morphology and inorganic composition of two brands of silver metal clay using Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Fired silver clay tablets were also submitted to Oddy testing in an attempt to determine the corrosive effect of any remaining organic binder. The results confirm that both brands of metal clay are composed of silver and they can be displayed and stored alongside other metal objects. However conservation treatments must be designed to take into account their porosity.

Keywords: Silver; Metal clay; Powder metallurgy; Oddy test; SEM-EDS.

M. El-Gohary, M.A. El-Magd

Influence of Acrylic Coatings and Nanomaterials on the Interfacial, Physical, and Mechanical Properties of Limestone-Based Monuments. Case Study of "Amenemhat II Temple"

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 219-234
The present paper covers the study of limestone consolidants based on acrylic polymer (Paraloid B-72), Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles (Nanolime) and the acrylic polymer mixed with Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles. The experimental study was conducted on limestone samples from El-Ashmunein archaeological area, Minia, Egypt. Some tests were done for studying the behavior of the consolidants used. The main goal of these tests was to estimate the consolidants efficiency and investigate the changes of physio-mechanical properties of the studied samples before and after consolidation, as well as after artificial aging. Therefore, laboratories measurements such as weight change, chromatic variations, physio-mechanical and SEM were performed. It was observed that there are noticeable differences among stone physio-mechanical properties of samples after treatment and after artificial aging according to the types of consolidant. It was found out, the best efficiency was the mixture of Paraloid B-72 and Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, followed by Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles (Nanolime) dispersion in ethanol 2.5%, then Paraloid B-72 2%. The obtained results showed a significant improvement in physio-mechanical properties of the samples treated by the mixture of Paraloid B-72 and Ca(OH)2 nanoparticles, e.g., increase in bulk density from 2.02 to 3.55 g/cm3 and decrease in porosity from 25.09% to 13.74%,as well as a noticeable increase in compressive strength.

Keywords: Nanoparticles; Consolidants; Powdering; Efflorescence; Compressive strength

A. Sahab, N. Sidkey, N. Abed, A. Mounir

Application of Anise and Rocket Essential Oils in Preservation of Old Manuscripts Against Fungal Deterioration

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 235-244
The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc sulphate as a microelement in combination with anis and rocket essential oils as alternative preservatives protecting old manuscripts. Two fungal isolates of Fusarium oxysporum and Trichoderma viride isolated from deteriorated manuscripts were chosen to evaluate the protective agents. The obtained results revealed that the concentration of 100mM of zinc ion completely inhibit the growth of F. oxysporum, whereas the growth of T. viride was reduced growth by 80.22%. The essential oil of anis and rocket were chemically analyzed by GC-MS. The main components of anis were anethole (91.06%) followed by Cyclooctasiloxane (2.29%), then Humulen (1.48%). While, the main component of rocket identified were 1-Isothiocyanato-4-(methylthio) butane (erucin = sulforaphane) (81.23%), followed by Carvacrol (5.27%) and Thymol (5.16%). The results showed that the main mechanical properties either elongation percent (%) or maximum force (N/mm2) retained their values due to treatment with ZnSO4 and fumigated by anise or rocket. .

Keywords: Essential oils; Metallic ion; Manuscripts; Fusarium oxysporum; Trichoderma viride.

A.G.M. Ali, A.A.A. Elsheikha, E.M. Elbanna, F.J.M. Peinado

An Approach to Conservation And Management of Farasan Islands' Heritage Sites, Saudi Arabia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 245-256
The Farsan Islands in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia includes a number of natural and cultural heritage sites, which are the focus of the attention of those interested in both local and international levels. This importance has made it necessary to monitor these sites and address them from a heritage and archaeological point of view by developing a proposal to manage and preserve them. The study defines the concept of conservation and management and propose a methodology for managing heritage sites by determining the importance of the site, its value and authenticity, monitoring the current use and their status, with providing information on the urban environment and development plans. This is followed by organizing the available information to monitor the site potentials', formulating the main objectives and identifying the means proposed to achieve them through an action and implementation plan. Therefore, this study aims at clarifying the importance of managing heritage sites through the following: highlight the importance of the Farasan Islands, develop a management plan to attain sustainable development, prepare a geographical database that covers all the heritage sites with the benefit of risk and crises management, conduct a SWOT analysis and support decision-making by relevant authorities.

Keywords: Farasan Islands; Heritage Sites' Management; Sustainable Development; Natural Heritage; Cultural Heritage.

D. Sharma, M. Singh, G. Krist, N.M. Velayudhan

Structural Characterisation of 18th Century Indian Palm Leaf Manuscripts of India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 257-264
This paper's aim to characterise the 18th CE Palm leaf manuscript of India`s southern and eastern part based on its structural elements. Investigative studies were carried using polarised light microscope and stereomicroscope for the samples drawn from Indian states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Odisha. From the data, it is observed that the palm leaf species of Borassus and Corypha mostly drawn from southern and eastern states of India were extensively exploited for manuscript writing in whole of India. The microscopic observation also showed the weak zones present in the palm leaf manuscripts for suitable conservation measures.

Keywords: Palm tree; Corypha, Borassus; Palm leaf manuscripts; Anatomy; Deterioration; PLM; Isolateral; Dorsiventral

W.A. Mohamed, N.M. Mohamed

Analytical Investigation Of An Enameled Royal Tray

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 265-276

This research aims to investigate a precious colorful royal Ottoman silver tray from the Faculty of Applied Arts' Museum, Egypt. It incorporates two sophisticated methods of enamelling: champlev and painture enhancing a tugra central disc. The chemical composition and deterioration aspects of the enamel and metal were identified using different examination and analytical techniques such as USB digital microscope, Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM?EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).The tray showen different signs of deterioration, such as flaking, exfoliation, scratches, pits and colour alteration of the enamel while tarnishing covered the whole metal surface. Results proved that the tray is made of partially gilded silver-copper alloy. Gold residues were found on the frame and the handles. The enamel contains basically silica, potassium, sodium and lead. The analysis and examination results in addition to the tugra central disc enabled the accurate dating of the tray to the 19th century.

Keywords:Enamel; Metal; Examination; Analysis; USB digital microscope; pXRF; SEM-EDX; FTIR

P. Naeimi Taraei, A. Dolati, M.A. Emami

An Investigation of the Corrosion Behavior of Some Iron Artifacts Belonging to the Early Iron Age

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 277-290
The corrosion process of two iron dagger handles decorated with bronze strips found from the Ziviyeh area, which is one of the important Iron Age sites in the northwest of Iran, is thoroughly investigated. X-ray radiography was used to obtain the damages and corrosion zones of the artifact. Optical and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the microstructure of cross sections and to achieve structural details about the metal matrix and corrosion layers. The X-ray diffraction method was used to study the chemical characterization of corrosion products. The results of studies have shown that severe stress on bronze strips is caused by the formation of goethite and lepidocrocite compounds and their increased volume. Stress corrosion along the inter granules and cracking in some of the bronze strips are observed. The created cracks in the magnetite layers provided shortcuts to transfer the moisture and corrosive anions. The atmospheric corrosion of the remaining ferrous parts continued actively by dewatering corrosion products and creating wet blisters and holes filled with oxyhydroxide products. The formation of oxide compounds of copper and tin on the surface of bronze strips followed a slow process of uniform corrosion in bronze strips to a limited extent.

Keywords: Corrosion; Iron-bronze bimetallic artifacts; Early Iron Age; Iran; Ziviyeh

D. Kumar, J. Prasad, A.K. Pandey, M.K. Upadhyay

A Scientific Approach to Preservation of Cultural Heritage - Sib Sagar (Assam) Centrally Protected Monument

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 291-300
Sibsagar monuments in Assam, a north-east state of India is large masonry structure built using sandstone, terracotta bricks, lime surkhi mortar/plaster, mud and tiles. The monuments have been exposed to decay for centuries, some time for millennia. Due to long period of exposing the monument, environmental change, the monuments are continuously deteriorated. In this article, it is discussed important weathering and deteriorating agents like as temperature, relative humidity, atmosphere, rain water, surface water, ground water, biological growth, and human vandalism along with a scientific approach to preservation of monuments. The efforts have been made that this approach to protection of the monument was significantly, weather resistance and good for health of the monuments.

Keywords: Deterioration factors; Preservation; Pollution; Silane/Siloxane.

T. Panda, N. Mishra, B.K. Pradhan, R. Mohanty

Live Fencing: An Ecofriendly Boundary Wall in Bhadrak District of Odisha, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 301-310
Live fencing, an age old and traditional practice, commonly found in rural areas of Bhadrak district, Odisha, India, but its importance remains unexplored and not yet documented. Exploratory surveys conducted in Bhadrak district, indicated that traditional farmers have vast knowledge about their live fencing practices and the species used. A total of 61 plant species belonging to 53 genera under 24 families are used by the people as biofencing, besides food, timber, fuel wood, medicine etc. Two groups of species are observed on the fence. The first groups of species (Ipomoea carnea, Bambusa arundinacea, Bougainvillea spectabilis etc.) are used primarily for protection and the second groups of species (Annona squamosa, Borassus flabellifer, Moringa oleifera etc.) are utilized for medicine, fruits and vegetables. Some promising fence species of this region are Acacia nilotica, Annona squamosa, Bambusa arundinacea, Bambusa vulgaris, Borassus flabellifer, Casuarina equisetifolia, Erythrina indica, Euphorbia tithymaloides, Ipomoea carnea, Jatropha curcas, Pandanus fascicularis, Pilosocereus arrabidae and Vitex negundo. This traditional biofencing practice is playing an important role in biodiversity conservation..

Keywords: APG III; Biofencing; Biodiversity conservation; Economic uses; Indigenous knowledge

K. Shaikh, S.Q. Memon, G.S. Gachal

A Comprehensive Analytical Study of Amphibian Habitats in District Larkana, Sindh, Pakistan

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 311-318
An analytical study of physico-chemical parameters in amphibian habitats was carried out for three years (2011-2013) in four talukas (subdivions): Bakrani, Dokri, Larkana and Rato Dero of District Larkana which were explored distinctively for the search of amphibian habitats in agricultural fields. From 26 agricultural ponds (permanently inhabited by amphibians) water samples were collected and analyzed for the determination of physico-chemical parameters including pH, EC, TDS, T-Hard, T-Alk, Cl, SO4, PO4, NO2, NO3, CO2 and K using scientific instrumentation and chemicals. Present study recorded value of most of parameters too high to support amphibian survival in all subdivisions. Variation in value of parameters was recorded every month with maximum upsurge in July, while minimum value of all parameters was noted in October, but it was duly recorded that even minimum value was still too high to meet favorable criteria. Yearly variation in water quality was also obvious as pollution rate was higher during year 2012, while comparatively lower level of the contamination was recorded during year 2011. Present investigation confirmed the existence of massive pollution into aquatic habitats in District Larkana which may affect amphibian fauna badly.

Keywords: Amphibian habitat; physico-chemical parameters; District Larkana;

U.K. Sen

Assessing the Social, Ecological and Economic Impact on Conservation Activities within Human-Modified Landscapes: A Case Study in Jhargram District of West Bengal, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 319-336
Sacred groves are tracts of virgin or human- modified forest with rich diversity, which have been protected by the local people for the centuries for their cultural, religious beliefs and taboos that the deities reside in them and protect the villagers from different calamities. The present study was conducted Copraburi (CSG) and Kawa-Sarnd (KSG) sacred grove in Nayagram block of the Jhargram district under west Bengal, in appreciation of its role in biodiversity conservation. The study aimed at the documentation and inventory of sacred groves, its phytodiversity, social, ecological and economical role with mild threats. A total of 120 species belonging to 113 genera distributed 43 families from 24 orders were recorded from the sacred groves according to the APG IV (2016) classification, which covering 47, 26, 23, 24 species of herbs, shrubs, tree, climbers respectively. Moreover, both groves support locally useful medicinal plants for various ailments. This is the first ethnobotanical study in which statistical calculations about plants are done by fidelity level (FL) in the study area. Therefore, there is an urgent need not only to protect the sacred forest, but also to revive and reinvent such traditional way of nature conservation.

Keywords: APG IV; Biodiversity; Conservation; Ethnobotany; Sacred grove; West Bengal

B. Kabeer, M. Anwar, M. Rais, M.J. Jilani, M.A. Asadi, S. Abid, S. Bilal, F. Saleem, B.H. Ahmed, A.W. Yunus, S. Zahid, M. Anjum, P. Hejcmanová, M.K. Sheikh, A. Mehmood

Study of Feed Preference of Endangered Hog Deer under Captive Conditions in Pakistan

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 337-344
Hog deer (Axis porcinus) are an endangered species in Pakistan, and there is little information about their feed preference in captivity. Seven animals were offered weighed amount of feed in two seasonal binary combinations of fresh fodder and one combination of grains. The fresh seasonal fodder included Oat (Avena sativa), Lucerne (Medicago sativa), Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and Maize (Zea mays); whereas grains included Wheat (Triticum aestivum) whole-grains and Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) seeds. Thirteen plant samples were collected from the wild habitat of Hog deer in Tunsa Barrage Wildlife Sanctuary. Plant samples from wild and captivity were analysed through proximate analysis for Crude protein, Fiber, Fat and Ash contents. The outcomes concluded that in combination C1, the hog deer preferred Oat over Lucerne (p < 0.05) with a mean percentage±standard error (Mean±SE) of 90.757±0.401 percent for Oat and 9.243±0.401 percent for Lucerne. The animals preferred Maize (p < 0.05) in combination C2 with mean percentage and standard error of 91.657±0.368 percent compared to Sorghum with mean percentage and standard error of 8.343±3.083 percent. Chickpea was the preferred feed item (p < 0.05) against Wheat from the C3 combination with mean percentages and standard error of 92.2±0.453 percent and 7.800±0.453 percent respectively. The results of the proximate analysis revealed that the percentage of Crude Protein was 15.69±4.8 percent and 12.63±1.4 percent for plants in Captivity and plants in the wild respectively. The percentages of Fat content in plants in captivity and the wild were 3.34±0.86 and 3.37±0.41 respectively. The results showed percentages of Ash content in plants both in captive and wild,10.9±5.9 and 32.83±0.98 respectively; whereas, the percentages of fibre contents in the plants in captivity and wild habitats were 21.00±3.9 and 27.01±2.6 respectively.

Keywords: Hog deer; Feed preference; Proximate analysis; Captivity; Axis porcinus

N.H.N. Raikhan, M.Y.M. de Valda

Novel Polymer-Based Ca-Alginate Microbial Encapsulation with Chitosan Coating for Degradation of High Concentration of Bisphenol A

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 345-350
This paper represents our finding on new formulation of Ca-alginate beads preparation to support cell survival in the BPA biodegradation by extracellular laccase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22. The microencapsulation of the cells in Ca-alginate coated with 0.40% (w/v) chitosan has proved to enhance better survival in high BPA concentration (1200 ppm) with high activity and stable laccase production with BPA degradation over 80%. The coating has sized up the beads diameter to 116±0.01µm from 98µm (without the chitosan coating). The specific growth (?) of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22 in the Ca-alginate was 0.19 hour-1 suggesting that wellbeing of cells was excellent. The microcapsule yield (EY) was recorded as 94±0.01% proved that the bead's mechanical strength has been enhanced. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) resulted in very smooth non-pitting surface of Ca-alginate beads with chitosan coating. The coating process has increased the mechanical strength by 40% compares to non-coated beads which have ruptured slowly after 120 min. We are looking forward to research the mechanical properties of Ca-alginate over the residual stress and deformation of beads structure as an expansion of our academic report.

Keywords: Microbial coating; Biomaterial surfaces; Pseudomonas aeruginosa NR.22; Microencapsulation; chitosan Coating

P. Gupta, K. Sarma

Spatial Distribution of Groundwater Quality, Depth and Plant Species Diversity in National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 351-360
Groundwater and green cover being two important resources indicating extent of unplanned urbanization in National Capital Territory (NCT) of Delhi, India were considered in the study to understand the relationship between the two. Three vegetated land covers and one settlement area were selected with two sites under each land cover for the study. Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI) was used to quantify and classify groundwater quality based on water quality index values. Groundwater depth was also measured at selected study sites. Total plant species diversity was calculated at each site and spatial distribution maps were prepared using the Kriging tool of ArcGIS environment. According to CCME WQI, sites under protected forest have water quality in the classification range of 90-100 which is excellent and good groundwater quality with depth going more than 50 meters below ground level. Also, protected forest area recorded maximum plant species diversity, decreasing from south to northern parts of the city.

Keywords: Groundwater; NCT of Delhi; Green cover; Kriging; Species diversity

M.I.H. Reza, S.A. Abdullah, S.B.M. Nor, M.H. Ismail

Landscape Pattern and Connectivity Importance of Protected Areas in Kuala Lumpur Conurbation for Sustainable Urban Planning

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 361-372
Protected areas in the cities play an important role for nature conservation and sustainable urban planning. In many occasions however development activities and urban planning ignore this ecological aspect. For sustainable urban planning, understanding the landscape pattern and connectivity importance of urban protected areas and its surroundings are important. Therefore, this study examined: i) landscape pattern changes of three protected areas - Bukit Sungai Puteh, Bukit Nenas and KL Golf Course and ii) their connectivity importance for biodiversity conservation of Kuala Lumpur conurbation. In this study three satellite images (Landsat TM 30 m resolution) of the study areas in 1988, 1996 and 2005 were processed and analyzed using ERDAS Imagine 9.2 and ArcGIS 9.3 to develop land use/land cover maps of the study areas in the three years. Landscape pattern of the maps was analyzed using landscape metrics calculated by Vector Based Landscape Analysis Tools Extension ( vLATE ) software. Conefor Sensinode 2.2 (CS22) software was used to measure landscape connectivity. Results revealed that over the decades the protected areas experienced highly pressure from anthropogenic activities. Generally, their size is very small and the natural areas within their boundary gradually reduced and fragmented. Analysis also revealed the transformation of natural landscape to the anthropogenic settlements inside all of the three protected areas. This suggests that these protected areas may have lost their capability to support valuable biodiversity if the situation persisted. However, the connectivity analysis showed that some of the large patches of forest outside the protected areas have connectivity importance. Therefore, there is a need for more protected areas in the Kuala Lumpur conurbation to protect valuable biodiversity and also the natural landscapes for sustainable planning of the city.

Keywords: Landscape ecology; Ecological integrity; Urban ecosystem; Biodiversity; Protected area; Landscape connectivity

Publication date: 15.06.2018

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