International Journal of Conservation Science

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Online ISSN: 2067-8223
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ARCHIVE: Volume 11 - 2020

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Volume 11, Issue 1, March 2020

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Research articles

A. Casoli, S. Volpin

Materials and Paint Technique of a Special Masterpiece: Jacopo Tintoretto s The wedding Feast at Cana in Venice

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 3-14
The present paper illustrates the results of the scientific investigation performed on the painting on canvas The Wedding Feast at Cana (1561) by Jacopo Robusti, nicknamed Tintoretto. The painting, commissioned for the refectory of the Crociferi’s Convent of, is located in the Sacristy of the Basilica della Madonna della Salute in Venice, after the dissolution of the congregation. Noninvasive single spot technique (X-ray fluorescence), and analytical investigations (optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy, and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry) on ten micro-samples were combined to retrieve the palette and identifying the organic binding media. The investigations revealed the existence of many pigments available at that time in Venice, among which is the precious lapis lazuli. The identification of two pigments, one white and one blue, allowed to know the possible time of execution of the two angles, added at the top. The study of the painting has made it possible to know completely unexpected aspects: the painting does not present the traditional ground of gypsum and animal glue, but it turns out to be complete without the preparatory layer. This painting is described by art historians as an “oil on canvas”; however, GC/MS did not identify any fatty acids of siccative oil, but only egg, presumably yolk, then The Wedding Feast at Cana was made in tempera.

Keywords: Non-invasive analyses; Tempera on canvas; Organic binders; Pigments; Tintoretto; The Wedding Feast at Cana.

J. Abbasi, K. Samanian, M. Afsharpour

Consolidation of Historical Woods Using Polyvinyl Butyral/Zinc Oxide Nano-Composite: Investigation of Water Absorption, Wettability and Resistance to Weathering

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 15-25
Polyvinyl butyral is a consolidate that mostly used for consolidation of degraded and weak woods. The aim of present research is to study the efficiency of polyvinyl butyral/zinc oxide nanocomposites as consolidant of old dried woods and evaluate the influence of this material on penetration and wettability of wood and also durability against accelerated aging of Plantenus Orientalis wood samples. All wood samples used in this research are belonged to Qajar period and were obtained from the same piece in equal and relatively well condition and held in a chamber of controlled temperature and relative-humidity to maintain their weight after they were cut into certain cross-sections. In this research, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 wt% of zinc oxide was added to the matrix of 10% polyvinyl butyral using the whole immersion method. The efficiency of consolidating was examined by simple weighting method, and wettability of samples was evaluated by contact angle test. The values of the degradation rate of samples after accelerated aging were measured by FTIR-ATR (Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy-Attenuated Total Reflection) methods. The results showed that introduction of 0.5 and 1 wt% of nano-zinc oxide to the consolidate polymer matrix led to a decrease in water penetration and wettability of samples. On the other hand, the degradation rate in the accelerated aging condition of samples which were treated with both polyvinyl butyral and 1.5 wt% dispersion of nano- zinc oxide was lower in comparison with other samples.

Keywords: Wood; Consolidate; Nano-Composite; Polyvinyl Butyral; Zinc Oxide; Water Absorption

C. Melchiorre, L. Dello Ioio, G. Ntasi, L. Birolo, G. Trojsi, P. Cennamo, M.R. Barone Lumaga, G. Fatigati, A. Amoresano, A. Carpentieri

A Multidisciplinary Assessment to Investigate a XXII Dynasty Wooden Coffin

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 25-38
The characterization of historical artefacts at a molecular level is becoming an increasingly important aspect for cultural heritage. All the developments in extraction, separation and analytical methodologies can be helpful for challenging tasks, such as the identification of chemical compounds (proteinaceous binders, oils, varnishes) used by artists. Any information thus obtained, is fundamental to investigate the executive techniques and the constitutive materials, at the same time they can also be used to develop protocols for conservation treatment. In this paper, we present the molecular characterization of the organic components extracted from the preparation layers and the pictorial surface of an Egyptian wooden coffin. The artefact is part of the Egyptian Collection held at the Archeological National Museum of Naples (IT) and belongs to a specific type known with the name of “yellow coffin”, dated at the beginning of the XXII Dynasty. Following the identification of the wood used to build the coffin, we performed on each of them an extraction of the organic components, which, according to differences in chemical-physical properties, were subsequently divided into three categories (monosaccharides, lipids and proteins) and separately analyzed. Pigments are not the subject of the current study. The ingenuity of our methodology relies on the use of powerful analytical methodologies (i.e. high-resolution MS) which led to the unambiguous identification of heterogeneous molecules.

Keywords: reparation layers; Painting technique; Wood identification; Proteins; Lipids; Polysaccharides; Mass spectrometry; Egyptian coffin

A. Yosri, N. Mohamed, A. Atef, O. Atef, R. Attia, M. Ali

Analytical Study on the Effects of Pollutants on Silver Gelatin Prints

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 39-50
Silver gelatin prints are composed of multiple materials giving such photographs a complex physical and chemical nature; and for this reason, they are more vulnerable to damage compared to other archival materials such as books and manuscripts. This paper studies the effects of pollutants on the properties of silver gelatin prints. Silver gelatin prints are attacked by pollutants in the form of gases and/or solid particles. Pollutants affect all components of a silver gelatin prints causing it to deteriorate and/or degrade. Gaseous pollutants have the most aggressive influence on photographic materials. Gaseous pollutants which are harmful to silver gelatin prints include oxidant, sulfiding and acidic gases. This paper focuses only on the effect of hydrogen peroxide as an internal pollutant and hydrogen sulfide as an external pollutant. The study included exposing photographic samples to both hydrogen peroxide and hydrogen sulfide for a period of 10 days and 15 days. The evaluation procedure was carried out using microscopic inspection, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and colorimetric measurements.

Keywords: Silver gelatin prints; Pollutant; Damage; Visual inspection; Microscopic examination; FTIR; colorimetric measurement..

A. Boukhenouf, O. Iaichouchen

Study Of Terracotta Vaulting Tubes From A New Archaeological Site In Mlakou, Algeria

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 51-60
Several archaeological excavation projects have been initiated over the last decade at ancient sites in many regions of Algeria. One of the newly excavated sites is referred to here as “Mlakou”, a region in the department of Bejaia, Algeria. This paper reports on the unearthing of archaeological and architectural vaults built with terracotta vaulting tubes from the Roman period. The vaulting tube was a widespread construction material in Roman North Africa and was the subject of several studies spanning several Mediterranean countries, though very little of these were from Algeria. Vaulting tubes have been excavated from many sites across Algeria both on coastal sites (Souk Ahras, Setif, Guelma, Tebassa, Batna, Tipaza and Chélif) and deep in the desert (Biskara). The results of this work would contribute to the existing bulk of knowledge on the use and manufacturing techniques of vaulting tubes in Roman architecture. In addition, the study draws a comparative analysis with nine other vaulting tube types in terms of decoration technique, dimensions, shape and location..

Keywords: Vaulting tubes; Arching tubes; Terracotta tube; Roman architecture; Archaeology

N. Benslimane, R.W. Biara, A. Benslimane

Influence of the Prospective Technology in the Facade's Disfiguration of the Historical Houses. Case of the Old Ksar of Bechar

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 61-74
Filled with the dilemma of clinging to tradition and adapting to modernity, the ancient houses inherent in the ksar of Bechar (in southwest Algeria), notwithstanding legendary, are currently subject to obvious cultural transformations. Unpublished furnishings are now making way; new spaces are introduced, giving birth to facades in all their ugliness without any reference to the original. They appear to aspire to a priori a way of life distinct from that of ancestral confirmed by the fading of domestic practices of old. If traditional houses are now subject to endogenous and exogenous transmutation at the same time, this is the effect of the modernization of the capitalist economy, in homes in the third world where technology is far from being used to its proper value, defying the rules of local tradition and intrinsic culture. this article provides a solution to encourage the conservation of historic sites in the face of technological change. This research is mainly focusing on the search for a solution to the disfigurement of the facades, partly through the great presence of telephone cables, Internet cables and antenna dishes, knowing that developed countries have already avoided this problem by using smart technologies.

Keywords: Traditional architecture; Technology development; Disfigurement of the facade; Cabling; Smart technology.

S. Kim, W.J. Park

Characteristics of Emission Substances by Acid-Degradation of Shinan Wreck, Republic of Korea

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 75-86

The Shinan wreck, Korea's first excavated underwater shipwreck in 1976, has proven an ongoing problem with acid-degradation. Acid-degradation is known as the reaction that occurs when sulfur, iron compounds, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and oxygen is placed in an environment of high humidity. As a result of this reaction, some acidic substances are produced as by-products. However, what kinds and how much of the substances emitted from the acid-degraded, waterlogged wood are the question. In this study, the characteristics of substances emitted from wooden pieces from the Shinan wreck were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by divided into the acid-degraded group and the degradation-free group. For the analysis, the bag test method was applied for the emission test. As results, it was confirmed that the acid-degradation affects the emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide. In the case of VOCs, acid-degradation plays an important role for emitting natural VOCs such as calamenene, amorphane-A, junipene, selinane, etc., which are known to be emitted from Cryptomeria japonica in particular. Also, it seems that formaldehyde is created by the oxidative degradation of PEG and wood polymers. As it is confirmed that the emission source of formaldehyde, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide is the Shinan wreck, specifically due to the acid-degradation, applying for the de-acidification treatment on the acid-degraded parts of the wreck is necessary to mitigate harmful substances with humidity control in the shipwreck gallery.

Keywords: Shinan wreck; Acid-degradation; Bag test method; VOCs; Formaldehyde; Sulfur dioxide; Nitrogen oxide.

D. Dumasari, W. Darmawan, A. Iqbal, B. Dharmawan, I. Santosa

A Pro-Conservation Adaptation Power Model for Cococraft Craftsmen Using Coconut Waste in Purbalingga, Central Java, Indonesia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 87-96
The coconut industry is centered on organic material, which is easily damaged and can decay and stink. The volume of waste produced requires the expansion of landfill sites. Piles of coconut waste can negatively affect the health, cleanliness, beauty, fertility, and environmental productivity of the surrounding area. This waste harms both humans and natural resources. In Purbalingga, Indonesia, these problems have been solved by the creative and productive efforts of pro-conservation cococraft craftsmen. Cococraft is produced from coconut industrial waste using environmentally friendly technology and no chemicals. An established national cococraft market has increased the demand for raw materials. Consequently, cococraft craftsmen must deal with scarce raw materials and low incomes. The fragile adaptability and vulnerability of these craftsmen also interfere with continuity in the production of cococraft. This study formulated a pro-conservation adaptation model for cococraft craftsmen. The research model was based on the interrelationships of raw material efficiency, external–internal cooperation, economic potential, and zero coconut industrial waste production. The model design emphasized techniques that maintain the balance of economic, social, environmental, and technological interests. The model is useful as a theoretical reference for local governments and other parties that would like to adopt pro-conservation community development policies.

Keywords: Coconut industry waste; Pollutants; Adaptability; Models; Pro-Conservation.

S. Ahmed, M. Abdelbar, W. Sabry, A. Ali

Experimental Study of Gap-Filling of Ancient Completely Corroded Copper Bowl Via Nano- Polymers

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 97-108

Completely mineralized copper bowl was removed from the burial environment and was preserved without conservation treatment for long time. Corrosion process-induced has created broken and loose parts arising fragility of the object resulted from the burial condition (major factor), post-excavation, poor storage, transport procedures and mishandling. Corrosion products and soil encrustations were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy SEM/EDS. Experimental studies on selected nano-polymers were performed on simulated objects after accelerated aging to modify gap-filling process. Microballoon was used as filler for bulking nano-paraloid B72, nano-primal and nano-veova. They were evaluated by SEM, IR and accelerated thermal aging. Results demonstrate that the use of microballoon in acryloid with fiberglass is the best gap-filling that was used in the reconstruction of the bowl. Veova is considered the best alternative polymer to paraloid B72 for filling gaps.

Keywords: Corrosion; Loose Parts; Conservation; Gap-filling; Polymers; Filler.

O. Florescu, I.C.A. Sandu, P. Spiridon-Ursu, I. Sandu

Integrative Participatory Conservation of Museum Artefacts. Theoretical and Practical Aspects

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 109-116
The concept of participatory conservation of museum artefacts involves the investigation of ways by which visitors and the wider public can be encouraged to take an active role in museum life. At the same time, it aims to explore the possibility of adapting the museum’s activities to actual realities in an interactive way. This paper presents a series of forms of participation in the conservation of museum artefacts process as an important part of integrated scientific conservation management. For this purpose, we selected several relevant cases from the field in order to identify the participative role of visitors in the conservation of museum artefacts.

Keywords: Participatory conservation; Artefacts; Museum management; Cultural heritage, valorisation.

E.R. Sulistya Dewi, A. Susatyo Nugroho, M. Ulfah

Types of Epiphytic Orchids and Host Plants on Ungaran Mountain Limbangan Kendal Central Java and Its Potential as Orchid Conservation Area

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 117-124
Orchidacea is a family of flower plants that have many species. Estimated has around 15,000 - 20,000 species. Orchids can grow not only in the tropics and sub-tropics but also grow at various heights. In addition, orchids are also known to grow as epiphytes as well as in soil, rocks and swamps and all are called terrestrial orchids. The largest orchid distribution is found in tropical rainforests. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of epiphytic orchids and host plants at Ungaran mountain Limbangan Kendal, as well as their potential as an orchid conservation area. This research is a qualitative descriptive study, with data collection by purposive sampling. From the results of the study obtained 10 types of epiphytic orchids from 7 genera. The most common host species are Ficus. Ungaran mountain Limbangan Kendal has the potential as an orchid conservation area.

Keywords: Epiphytic Orchid; Host Plant; Ungaran mountain.

I. Carlan, I. Sandric

The Use of a Field Spectrometer and Satellite Imagery for Identifying Stressed Vegetation in Bucharest, Romania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 125-132
Chlorophyll is the basic pigment for photosynthesis. Vegetation senescence can be accelerated if this process is hampered by external factors. Remote sensing tools contribute to vegetation stress detection. Previous studies correlated chlorophyll values with vegetation indices and red-edge shoulder position. This paper explored the applicability of multi- and hyperspectral satellite images and in-situ spectrometry data for identifying healthy and stressed vegetation in four parks within Bucharest, the capital city of Romania. It integrated data from Sentinel-2 MSI, EO-1 Hyperion and STS-VIS spectrometer from Ocean Optics. Overview of vegetation health is delivered by spaceborne sensors, using vegetation index values. MTVI indicates that vegetation in Unirii Park is the most affected, whilst Herăstrău Park and Tei Park are better managed. Furthermore, red-edge position analysis using leaf reflectance of three species (ash tree, linden tree, pine) confirmed the findings from satellite images. All analysed species Unirii Park and Păcii Park showed signs of high stress, resulting in a red shift of the red-edge position. Ash tree in Herăstrău Park is rather healthy. All species in Tei Park seemed to record a normal senescence rhythm. .

Keywords: Urban Vegetation; Spectrometry; Red-edge; REIP; MTVI.

A.D. Agbelade, B.H. Ojo

Species Diversity, Volume Determination and Structure of Protected Forests for in-situ Biodiversity Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 133-144
This study was designed to determine tree species composition, vegetation structure and the potentials of these protected forests for in-situ biodiversity conservation. The study areas were stratified into two different forest types (primary forest and sacred forest). Data were collected from eight 25m plots situated in these four forest areas (Akure Strict Nature Reserve, Eda Forest Reserve, Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove and Igbo Olodumare Sacred Grove) all located in southwestern Nigeria using a simple random sampling method. The results showed that the forest ecosystem included 57 tropical hardwood species belonging to 29 families. The highest tree species, diversity index and species evenness were found at Osun Osogbo sacred grove. This followed closely by Akure primary forest and Eda primary forest while Igbo Olodumare sacred grove had the least species composition species diversity index and species evenness. These findings confirmed that both the primary forests and sacred grove forests are important indicators of in-situ biodiversity conservation and structural improvement of the forest ecosystem. Despite the neglect of traditional methods of conservation, it has proved to be most effective method with high potentials for forests in-situ biodiversity conservation and this enhance ecosystem management.

Keywords: Biodiversity indices; Forest structure; Primary forest; Protected areas; Sacred grove; Tree diversity; Tree structure.

A. Pradhan, D. Adhikari, A. Chettri

Predicting the Distribution of Suitable Habitats for Pandanus Unguifer Hook.f. - A Dwarf Endemic Species from Sikkim Himalayas, Through Ecological Niche Modeling

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 145-152
Pandanus unguifer is a threatened species endemic to Sikkim and Darjeeling district of West Bengal. The species bears mildly fragrant creamy white colored flower and is the only Pandanus species that produces flowers in potted condition and hence, is of ornamental value. We used field collected-coordinates of five presence occurrence localities of the species for habitat distribution modeling. Additionally, downloaded environmental data from worldclim database were used for correlation. Amongst the input environmental variables, Mean diurnal range in temperature (Bio2) and Precipitation seasonality (CV) (Bio15) were influential factors and contributed 48.7% and 40.8% respectively to the MaxEnt model. The Rest of the remaining layers collectively contributed 10.5% to the final habitat model. Of the total 5963 suitable area only 153 sq. km has a very high probability of having P. unguifer which is only 2.57% of the total area. The study revealed the highest potential distribution of the species in Darjeeling district of West Bengal compared to Sikkim. However, resource extraction due to the felling of trees for fodder and small timber, road-widening and agricultural expansion are the causative factors threatening the existence of the species in its natural habitat. Thus urgent conservation initiatives are required to protect the existing endangered endemic species richness of these regions.

Keywords: Darjeelin; Endangered; Endemic; Pandanus; Sano-Tarika; Sikkim

S. Mohd Razali, A.A. Nuruddin, N. Kamarudin

Mapping Mangrove Density for Conservation of the Ramsar Site in Peninsular Malaysia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 153-164
It is widely agreed that rapid development has led to mangroves being in urgent need of improved monitoring and assessment techniques for better conservation. In Malaysia, the Convention on Wetlands, otherwise known as the Ramsar Convention, came into being specifically to address this problem and protect this particular area. The rapidly rising sea-level at mangrove sites is currently impacting the depth of mangrove soil, so action must be extended using available technology to sustain mangrove lives. This study tested if the vegetation indices from recent high-resolution multispectral satellite images Satellite Pour l’Observation de la Terre, known as SPOT, can map mangrove density and predict health area for the sites. An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) was also used to fly at the nearer sites for mangrove density classification mapping based on feature extraction tools classification. This study employed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (GNDVI), Greenness Vegetation Index (GVI), and Ratio Vegetation Index (RVI) to map mangrove density for the study site. The study showed, in terms of Maximum Likelihood Classifier (MLC) measurement, that 52% of the area was “high density”, 10%-19% was “low density”, and “low density mixed sand” and also “sand” area. The results also showed that NDVI responded higher for “high density” with 0.56, GNDVI with 0.27 for “high density”, GDVI with 17.0, and RVI only classified two density areas. In addition, the UAV images were classified into shadow, obvious tree crown, vegetation in the water, sea area, and others. As expected, the study revealed that UAV (b) was presented in a very high percentage in obvious tree crowns but in a low percentage with 2% of other classes, making it a distinct class from others. In addition, UAV (a) showed 42% shadow with a small portion distributed in other vegetation features (sea area and others) class, 4% to 10%. Mangrove density can also be used as an indicator of mangrove health status because low density mangroves are always found near to the risk areas.

Keywords: Mangrove; Peninsular Malaysia; Vegetation indices

B. Taye, S. Melaku, A. Dagne

Major Faunal Resources and Status, of Nono Salle Forest Priority Areas, Southwest Ethiopia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 165-178
Knowledge’s of the faunal diversity records, status and the preferred habitats are basis for the status determination and to propose appropriate conservation measures to the area. The survey was aimed to assess major faunal diversity in Nono Salle Forest priority areas. Fixed/Variable width line transect method with other indirect methods were used to count mammals in the study area while point count method with visual and auditory count was used to bird species. A total of 26 and114 species belonging to 13 and 53 families and 7 and 15 orders of mammals and birds were identified respectively. Out of 114 bird species identified the highest 57(47.5%) species were found in forest .The highest diversity of mammals was observed in the forest (H’=1.993) while highest species evenness of mammals was in riverine forest (J=0.646). About 3.8% and 7% of the mammals and birds are endemic to Ethiopia respectively. On the other hand 5.3% and 11.5% of the recorded birds and mammals are near threatened and above respectively. More fauna were observed around less disturbed area that is forest, the critically endangered, vulnerable and threatened species were also observed in these areas. Therefore, there is a need for urgent conservation strategies that involves local peoples through community based wildlife conservation to save the wildlife resources of the area.

Keywords: Major fauna; Diversity; Forest; Endemism; mammals; birds

E.F. Mosnegutu, M. Panainte-Lehăduș, F. Nedeff, O. Tirtoaca (Irimia), C. Tomozei

Waste Management Evaluation in the Context of Sustainable Development. Case Study Vasile Alecsandri University of Bacau

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 179-188
The sustainable development concept becomes more and more present in human society. One of its components is the waste management issues with applications in different activities. In this context, the present paper presents some modalities of waste management system implementation in public sector respectively, at “Vasile Alecsandri” University of Bacau. For the study were used reports, achieved by the Romanian Environmental Protection Agency and the data related to the waste quantities generated by the evaluated institution such as metallic waste, paper and cardboard waste, plastic waste etc.

Keywords: Waste management; Sustainable development; Antropic activities; Implementation system.

S.Y. Tan, N. Ibrahim, U.F. Md Ali, S. Y. Yusuf, M. K. Aroua

Surface Alkali Promotion of Carbon Dioxide Hydrogenation for Conservation of Carbon Sources: Cyclic Voltammetry Study

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 189-198
Conversion of CO2 captured from biogas upgrading process into useful chemicals or fuels e.g. methane is an attractive route towards conservation of carbon sources. Sustainable hydrogenation route could be achieved by combining the process with hydrogen generated from water electrolysis. In this work, cyclic voltammetry was used as preliminary technique to probe the electrochemical behaviour of Na-modified Pt/YSZ as model catalyst under CO2 hydrogenation. The reaction is irreversible and the voltammogram features are not easily distinguishable under reaction conditions. The increase in cathodic peak height and the decrease in peak potential with addition of sodium at low coverage (0.32%) indicated that the charge transfer reaction was enhanced and thus the methanation reaction could be electrochemically promoted given sufficient amount of H2 flow. However, increasing Na coverage was found to decrease the current hysteresis possibly due to formation of sodium compounds such as carbonates or oxides that populate the three-phase-boundary (tpb) active sites, thus deactivating the catalyst.

Keywords: CO2 utilisation; CO2 hydrogenation; Electrochemical promotion; Sodium promoter; Cyclic voltammetry

C. Mora-Garcia, R.G. Campos Jr., R.A. Seronay

Perceived Ecosystem Services Towards the Conservation of Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary in Mindanao, Philippines

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 199-208
Ecosystem services refer to the benefits that are derived from the natural environment. Wetlands such as Agusan marsh are a productive ecosystem that provides various goods and services to the ecological, economic, and social wellbeing of the society. Face-to-face household and key informant interview were done to assess the ecosystem services offered by Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary. Contingent valuation method (CVM) was used to determine the minimum willingness to accept (WTA) compensation per month of land managers should they agree to conserve part of the AMWS. Provisioning services such as food and water resources were seen as the benefits provided by the marsh to the community living within the marsh, but regulating services were more important for people living in the downstream. Flood control services are the regulatory service that has an impact towards the lower stretches of Agusan river, and too much financial effort has been given to flood control projects in low lying areas. The minimum WTA of farmers and fishers for any land conservation agreement were Php2,144.32 and Php3,442.0, respectively. This amount can be the basis of the decision makers and stakeholders if sustainable financing scheme on ecosystem services management program will be implemented in AMWS.

Keywords: Ecosystem services; Flood control; Wetland; Willingness to accept.

M.S. Stanc, I.A. Barbat, L. Bejenaru, M. Danu

Bioarchaeological Evaluation of the Early Neolithic Site of Rapoltu Mare-Seghi (Hunedoara County, Romania)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 209-218
Animal remains and phytoliths deriving from the Early Neolithic site of Rapoltu Mare-Seghi (Hunedoara County, Romania) are used for obtaining data regarding the palaeoenvironment of a Starčevo-Cris community. Bioarchaeological information in this paper is important considering that the beginning of the neolithization in the southwest Transylvania is still poorly documented. Archaeozoological analysis offers information on the settlement palaeoeconomy and phytoliths are reliable markers for the vegetal environment in this area. The most animal remains come from domestic mammals, especially cattle (Bos taurus) and sheep / goat (Ovis aries / Capra hircus); few remains of dog (Canis familiaris) and wild mammals (aurochs – Bos primigenius and wild boar – Sus scrofa) have been also identified. The absence of pig (Sus domesticus) suggests that the Starčevo-Cris community of Rapoltu Mare-Seghi had a high mobility, specific to shepherds. Phytoliths assemblages show the net dominance of grasses, several subfamilies of Poaceae family being attested. ELONGATE DENDRITIC forms are quite well represented, suggesting an anthropogenic accumulation; but it does not just mean that the cereal cultivation was practiced by the Rapoltu Mare-Seghi community. Bioarchaeological data indicate an open environment around the settlement, where people bred especially cattle and sheep/goat flocks.

Keywords: Animal remains; Phytolith; Early Neolithic; Transylvania

Publication date: 15.03.2020


Volume 11, Special Issue 1, 2020

with selected articles on
New Strategies and Methodologies Applied to Cultural Heritage:
From the Analytical Approach to the Case Studies

Guest editors:
Mauro F. LA RUSSA, Paola FERMO, Natalia ROVELLA

Click for Cover

Issue Cover

Research articles

D. Moro, G. Ulian, G. Valdre

SEM-EDS Microanalysis of Ultrathin Glass and Metal Fragments: Measurement Strategy by Monte Carlo Simulation in Cultural Heritage and Archaeology

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 223-232
Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) has a very wide range of applications in cultural heritage and archaeology, because of the capability to provide morphological analysis with high spatial resolution, combined with chemical information at the microscale. However, when the size of the materials analyzed approaches the micro- and submicrometre scale, as often found in cultural heritage and archaeology investigations, several effects related to electron and X-ray generation and transport had to be considered to avoid quantification errors. In this work, Monte Carlo simulations are presented for the study of the effects of thickness and shape on quantitative microanalysis by SEM-EDS of ultrathin glass and metal alloys fragments, as usually found in cultural heritage and archaeology. Glass fragments with different chemical composition, elongated shapes, square section and thicknesses from 0.1 to 10 µm, and micro/nanoscale gold alloy fragments were simulated in realistic experimental conditions. The simulations showed an important contribution from the fragments thickness and shape on the X-ray intensity measured by EDS, which in turn affect the quantitification procedure. The results of this study are of general meaning and application, and can be used to develop the most appropriate specific measurement strategy and avoid analytical errors and misinterpretations..

Keywords: SEM-EDS micro-nanoanalysis; Monte Carlo simulation; Glass and metal fragments and particles.

A.M. Gueli, S. Pasquale, G. Politi, G. Stella, C. Trigona

TL Authenticity Tests: Comparison between Measurement Methods for Temperature Estimation During Drilling

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 233-243
Sampling represents an important step of the procedure to perform authenticity tests by ThermoLuminescence (TL). The result of the test could be compromised if this phase is not correctly carried out. During the drilling, in fact, a local temperature increasing could cause a loss of the luminescence signal. In this paper, the comparison between IR thermography imaging and electrical measurements is shown also in order to validate a specific conceived model. The research is aimed at implementing the procedure used to perform the TL tests with the measurement of the temperature reached during the drilling. The measurements were performed using a pottery sherd simulating the collection step. Results show the validity of the model and provide data useful to optimize the sampling in TL test methodology.

Keywords: Thermoluminescence; IR thermography; Electrical measurements; true or false; Signal loss; Drill; DAQ board

L. Randazzo, M. Ricca, D. Pellegrino, D. La Russa, A. Marrone, A. Macchia, L. Rivaroli, F. Enei, M.F. La Russa

Anti-Fouling Additives for the Consolidation of Archaeological Mortars in Underwater Environment: Efficacy Tests Performed on the Apsidal Fishpond of Castrum Novum (Rome, Italy)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 243-250
This paper deals with the formulation of innovative mortars for the consolidation of archeological structures in underwater environment. The research was conducted within the frame of the MaTaCoS project (Advanced materials and technologies applied to the conservation of underwater cultural heritage) funded by MISE (Italian Ministry of Economic Development). The project concerns the design of advanced tools and methods for the protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage, through specific cleaning and consolidating procedures to be applied directly in situ. The fishpond of the archaeological site of Castrum Novum (Santa Marinella, Rome, Italy) was chosen as a pilot site for experimentation. It is a structure on the coastline, composed of only one tank, with an average immersion of 0.37 m below the sea level, and developing with an NE/SW orientation. The masonry structures reach the maximum thickness at the apex of the fishpond (4.70 m) and consist of a concrete conglomerate composed of slightly rough stones of medium size bound with non-hydraulic mortar. Selected mortars' fragments taken from the fishpond were characterized by means of minero-petrographic technique in order to define their main constituents from a compositional and textural point of view and also to identify the various degradation processes, mainly biological colonization. Starting from the acquired information, innovative mortars were formulated with the addition of two different anti-fouling additives aimed to slow down the above-mentioned degradation. The efficacy of the anti-fouling products was tested on specimens settled in laboratory environment (artificial marine environment). This information could be useful both for the definition of restoration interventions and for planning preservation protocols to be applied in this peculiar environment.

Keywords: Underwater Cultural Heritage; Natural Hydraulic Lime; Anti-fouling agents; SEM-EDS; Biocidal efficacy.

M.L. Weththimuni, F. Crivelli, C. Galimberti, M. Malagodi, M. Licchelli

Evaluation of Commercial Consolidating Agents on Very Porous Biocalcarenite

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 251-260
Nowadays, the conservation of heritage buildings is an essential and important event. Different kinds of materials are available for restoring both natural and artificial stone substrates, and new commercial products have been proposed in recent years. In the present research work we investigated the effectiveness of a alkylalkoxysilane-based commercial consolidant (named VP5035) with respect to the well known tetraethoxysilane (TEOS, commercially labeled as DN). The two products were evaluated when applied on laboratory specimens of a very porous bio-calcarenite, i.e. Lecce stone (PL). Different experimental techniques were used to investigate the performances of both commercial products. At first, chromatic variation, static contact angle, water capillary absorption, permeability to water vapor were measured in order to evaluate the effects induced by treatments on the stone surface. The properties of treated stone were also investigated by Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR-ATR ) and scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). Measurements concerning surface cohesion and resistance to weathering effect induced by salt crystallization were performed in order to evaluate the consolidation performances of the two consolidants. These results suggest that the commercial product VP5035, when applied on Lecce stone displays a promising dual consolidating-protective behaviour..

Keywords: Stone consolidation; Conservation process; TEOS; biocalcarenite; SEM-EDS; Salt crystallization.

A. Macchia, V. Brunori, L. Rivaroli, P. Coronas, C. Balzani, N. Rovella

Colorimetric Monitoring of Palazzo Margherita, US Embassy in Rome

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 261-270
The importance of preventive conservation strategies for the built heritage has been debated in the last years, but there is still a limited number of applied researches involving complex architectural sites. The identification and monitoring of the decay processes after the restoration activities can support future preventive conservation strategies. In this study the colorimetric approach made on the façades of Palazzo Margherita, US Embassy Rome's Chancery building is presented. This monument situated in the center of Rome (Italy) is an important case study for the understanding of the interaction between the surfaces and the environment. The main conservation issues have been identified and studied. A non-invasive colorimetric monitoring of selected areas of the façades has been carried out over a two-year period in order to evaluate the measurements of detected surface colour changes using the statistical PCA technique to represent the data.

Keywords: Colour alteration; Travertine; Spectrocolorimeter; PCA

R. Arcidiacono, P. Burrascano, M.F. La Russa, S. Laureti, L. Randazzo, M. Ricci

Ultrasonic Nondestructive Testing of Building Materials for the Diagnosis and Characterization of the Decay Due to Salts Crystallization

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 271-276
The possibility to use ultrasonic nondestructive testing for the diagnosis and characterization of decay in building materials due to salts crystallization is here investigated. Salts crystallization is one of the main sources of decay for stone materials, especially for cultural heritage items underwater or exposed to water, and its early detection as well as a continuous monitoring is highly desirable. Currently, this often requires the use of destructive methods and the sampling of the items under inspection. This work shows promises to the successful use for this purpose of ultrasonic nondestructive testing.

Keywords: Ultrasonic; Nondestructive evaluation; Salt crystallization; Building materials.

C. Germinario, M. Gorrasi, F. Izzo, A. Langella, M. Limongiello, M. Mercurio, D. Musmeci, A. Santoriello, C. Grifa

Damage Diagnosis of Ponte Rotto, A Roman Bridge Along The Ancient Appia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 277-290

This paper describes the results of the damage diagnosis performed on Ponte Rotto, a Roman bridge on the ancient Appia way located close to the city of Benevento (southern Italy). Despite it can be considered one of the most important remains of this type of monument in Campania region, the bridge was abandoned for centuries, being in a rather poor state of conservation; therefore, an accurate damage diagnosis has been carried out using an interdisciplinary approach, in order to plan conservative, preventive and restoration work for the requalification of this archaeological heritage. Photogrammetric survey and damage diagnosis following the Fitzner's method allowed identifying and quantifying the geomaterials adopted for the construction of the bridge and the weathering forms affecting it. Georeferenced orthoimages permitted the mapping of their areal distribution, the definition of the damage categories, and the estimation of the linear and progressive damage indexes, that revealed a definitely bad conservation state.

Keywords: Damage diagnosis; Fitzner method; Photogrammetric survey; Ponte Rotto; Via Appia.

V. Comite, J.S. Pozo-Antonio, C. Cardell, T. Rivas, L. Randazzo, M.F. La Russa, P. Fermo

Environmental Impact Assessment on the Monza Cathedral (Italy): A Multi-analytical Approach

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 291-304
This research deals with the characterization of black crusts collected from the Dome of Monza (Milan, Italy). Air pollution is responsible for the degradation of historical buildings surfaces. In urban and industrial areas, the degradation process is accelerated, due to carbonaceous particles and heavy metals emitted by combustion processes which contribute to the formation of black crust (BCs). In this study the characterization of BC was performed using different analytical techniques such as: HRSEM-EDX, IC, LA-ICP/MS and digital image analysis. In particular, the research focused on the study of "heavy metals" which contribute to the identify the main sources of pollution responsible for the surface's deterioration over time. BCs variability in composition also depends on the exposure of the analyzed surfaces.

Keywords: Black crust; Gypsum; Carbonate stone; Cultural Heritage; Conservation; Ion chromatography; Heavy metals; HRSEM-EDX

L. Randazzo, M. Ricca, D. Barca, F. Enei, B. Davidde Petriaggi, M.F. La Russa

New Data on the Exploitation of Obsidian in the Mediterranean Basin: The Harbour of Pyrgi and the Trade in Neolithic Age

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 305-318

The contribution shows the first results of ongoing research on the origins and prehistoric assumptions of the well-known Etruscan and Roman harbour of Pyrgi, an ancient Ceretan harbour in southern Etruria. In the light of recent land and submarine investigations, traces of ancient frequentations and contacts dating back to the Neolithic era are emerging when the coastal morphology and environmental characteristics of the site were very different from the current ones. The Etruscan port of Pyrgi, which continues its historical history in Roman and Medieval times, appears as the heir of one or more landing points frequented perhaps already in the Middle Neolithic. As part of this contribution, around 60 obsidian finds (waste resulting from the manufacture of arrowheads) were analyzed using the LA-ICP-MS technique (Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry). The comparison between the data obtained on the archaeological finds and the bibliographic data relating to the geological obsidians of the peri-Tyrrhenian area allowed the identification of the provenance of the finds. In particular, most of the finds can be attributed to the Aeolian area, highlighting the leading role played by the Aeolian archipelago in the development of trade of this material. Other sources of supply have been identified on the island of Palmarola and in Sardinia (Monte Arci) although with a lower incidence. The discovery of numerous findings in obsidian from overseas, which took place in the area immediately surrounding Pyrgi, offers different suggestions about the origin of the docking place, with traces of centuries-old frequentation, extended from the Neolithic to the modern era.

Keywords: Obsidian; Trace elements; LA-ICP-MS; Provenance; Pyrgi; Etruria; Neolithic period

S.F. Graziano, C. Rispoli, V. Guarino, G. Balassone, G. Di Maio, L. Pappalardo, P. Cappelletti, G. Damato, A. De Bonis, C. Di Benedetto, L. D'orazio, V. Morra

The Roman Villa of Positano (Campania Region, Southern Italy): Plasters, Tiles And Geoarchaeological Reconstruction

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 319-344
A Roman luxury villa (1st century BC) was discovered in the town of Positano, in the Sorrento peninsula (Campania region, southern Italy). Despite being more than 20 km away from Vesuvius, the villa was buried under almost overall 20 meters (total thickness) of pyclastic materials of the Plinian eruption of 79 AD, which destroyed Pompeii and Herculaneum towns. The exceptional level of conservation of this residential complex is due to the peculiar burial process, which determined the excellent state of preservation of both the fresco decorations (Fourth Style) and all other artefacts (masonries, plasters, tiles, furnishing remains, wooden elements, kitchenware, glazed oil lamps, bronze vessels and other metallic findings, etc.). This study presents the results of a multi-analytical archaeometric analysis of plasters, fresco pigments and roof tiles, aimed at identifying their mineralogical and petrographic nature and the provenance of raw materials. Constraints to the geoarchaeological landscape of the Positano area are also given. The analyzed plasters are mainly lime-based, usually with the addition of an aggregate. The anchoring layer is made by a volcanic component, characterized by clinopyroxene, alkali feldspar, garnet, amphibole, biotite and leucite crystals, together with a sedimentary component represented by carbonatic fragments, also with traces of microfossils. The features of plasters confirm the high degree of technological standardization of plasters in classical Roman age. Mineral pigments recognized by preliminary XRD are mainly iron-based for the ochers-red-crimson colors and copper-based for green-blues colors. In the roof tiles two kind of tempers are identified. In three samples a volcanic temper was identified, and represented by clinopyroxene, feldspar, garnet and leucite, whereas the temper of a fourth sample contained pumices with minor amounts of alkali feldspar, clinopyroxene and biotite. The raw materials are of local provenance (Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegraean Fields, Apennine limestones), and the microstructure of the materials are comparable with similar artefacts from Pompeii, Herculaneum and other Roman sites in Campania region. On the basis of geoarchaeological investigations, here reported, it is reasonable to think that there are other unearthed archaeological areas in Positano that will require further study to be properly known.

Keywords: Positano; Roman villa; southern Italy; Vesuvius; Pompeii eruption; Plasters s.s.; Arriccio; Pigments; Tiles; Geomaterials; Geoarchaeological landscape

G. Stella, S. Pasquale, A.M. Gueli

Statistical Approach for Equivalent Dose Determination in Historical Mortars Dating

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 345-352
A methodological study aimed to evaluate the bleaching degree of quartz fractions extracted from historical mortars is presented. Equivalent Dose (ED) measurements on small aliquots of two different quartz fraction, inclusion (90 µm<Ø<150 µm) and coarse grain (180 µm<Ø<212 µm), were performed by optically stimulated luminescence using single aliquot regeneration procedure. In order to choose the more suitable age model to be used, the bleaching degree was studied through a deep statistical approach using ED frequency distribution, Q-Q plot and Shapiro-Wilk normality test. The results show that ED from coarse grain could be statistically associated to normal distribution and then Central Age Model (CAM) can be used for Archaelogical dose calculation. The quartz inclusion data don't follow a normal distribution and then Minimum Age Model (MAM) is more appropriate. Archaelogical dose results obtained in two different age models were in good agreement.

Keywords: Normality test; Age model; Historical mortar dating; OSL measurements.

M.F. Alberghina, A. Casanova Municchia, G. Germinario, A. Macchia, M. Matteini, G. Milazzo, S. Ruffolo, L. Sabbatini, S. Schiavone, A. Sodo, M. Ricca, M.F. La Russa

A Multi-Analitycal Approach to Adress a Sustanaible Conservation of the Main Marble Portal of the Monreale Cathedral

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 353-360
The Main Portal of the Cathedral of Monreale is one of its magnificent external architectural elements. Recently, a conservation campaign was carried out for increasing its state of conservation, endangered by physical decays phenomena. The previous restorations, occurred over time, and the rising damp have contributed to its worsening. An integrated and multi-analytical diagnostic campaign has been provided to investigate the constitutive materials, the decays and the restorations coverings. Thanks to the analytical results, it was set a sustainable conservation treatment aimed to remove the causes of decays in view of the retractability of the original matter in the future. A difficult and complex cleaning was performed to remove the old coverings and safeguard traces of the original polychromy. An inorganic-mineral consolidating treatment, ammonium phosphate based, was carried out to re-give cohesion to the powdered marble especially in presence of water and salts. Several strategies of application were provided to have an efficient consolidation. A so representative monument, as the main portal, required a sustainable approach, able to interfere with the future conservation.

Keywords: Medieval sculpture; Ammonium phosphate; Polychrome marble; Mosaic tiles

S.A. Ruffolo, M. Ricca, A. Arcudi, M. Massera, M. Sijari?, M. F. La Russa

Characterization of Archaeological Bronze Objects from the National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 361-370
The National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina represents one of the most important cultural center of Sarajevo. It has a large collection of archaeological objects including bronzes. The determination of the provenance of the raw material is an ongoing challenge and can provide useful information to archaeologists. The fulfilment of this task is related also to the determination of the major and trace elements of the alloy itself. In this work fifteen objects have been selected to perform elemental analysis. The aim was to widen the knowledge of the archaeometallurgy within the central Balkan area. The analyses have been carried out by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and Electron Micro Probe Analyser (EMPA).

Keywords: Bronzes; Archeological bronzes; Elemental analysis; SEM-EDS; EMPA

P. Fermo, V. Comite, V. Guglielmi, M. Schiavoni, E. Boanini, R. Bonomi, E. Monfasani

Red Organic Colorant Used to Dye Textile Artifacts: From Mock-Up Samples Preparation to Analytical Characterization

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 371-378
The study here presented concerns the characterization with chromatographic (high-performance liquid chromatography, HPLC) and spectroscopic (Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy) techniques, of red dyestuffs used to dye the yarns of ancient tapestries. Following the ancient recipes the yarns (wool and silk) have been dyed using natural red dyes such as madder, kermes and cochineal. This allowed the preparation of mock-up samples used to realize a reference database. By SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis) the yarns morphology has been investigated and the presence of the metals responsible for the specific mordants employed has been confirmed. Attention has been also paid to develop a non-destructive approach to be applied in-situ.

Keywords: Dyestuffs; Tapestries; Raman; HPLC

Publication date: 25.03.2020


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