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ARCHIVE: Volume 4 - 2013

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Volume 4, Special Issue, 2013

Selected articles presented at INART 2013
1st International Conference on Innovation in Art Research and Technology
Evora, 10th – 13th of July 2013

Guest Editors:
Antonio Estevao Grande CANDEIAS & Irina Crina Anca SANDU

1. Surfaces and Interfaces in Conservation

A.C. Antunes, J. Coroado, M.C. Sequeira, J. Bolton, F. Rocha

Characterization of Lime Mortars from an 18th Century River Tagus Quay (Lisbon, Portugal)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 515-524
The monumental quay Cais das Colunas was built in the decades 1770 to 1790, merged in the reconstruction plan of the city of Lisbon after the great 1755 earthquake. Characterization studies of mortars from this period are still very few. In 1997 the quay was partially dismounted and in 2008 was reconstructed. During the reconstruction intervention ancient mortars, from the core, were sampled in order to study them. This paper presents the mineralogical, chemical and granulometric characterization and capillarity water absorption of samples from these mortars. The analytical methodology comprised: the qualitative mineralogical analysis by powder method of total sample by X-Ray diffraction; the quantitative chemical analysis of total sample by X-Ray fluorescence; the water absorption by capillarity coefficient; the determination of hydrochloric acid insoluble residue; and the granulometric analysis of insoluble residue. This methodology allowed determining the simplified composition of mortars. It was confirmed the use of local sands and aerial lime based binder.

Keywords:Historical mortars; Lisbon quay; Pombaline reconstruction; Heritage; Waterfront; XRD; XRF

I. Barbetti, A. Felici, D. Magrini, R. Manganelli del Fa’, C. Riminesi

Ultra Close-range Photogrammetry to Assess the Roughness of the Wall Painting Surfaces after Cleaning Treatments

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 525-534
In the present work authors show the results obtained by means of the application of ultra close-range photogrammetry for assessing the pattern of a detached wall painting’s surface during/after cleaning treatments. The cleaning treatments are critical operations in conservation so the choice of the method and the definition of the protocol require preliminary activities and studies for the optimization of the procedure. Since the removal of the material is an irreversible operation, an extremely selective method is needed. The criteria traditionally chosen for the selection of the adequate cleaning procedure are the evaluation of the amount of material removed during the treatment and the surface variations (roughness) before and after the treatment. A non-destructive technique could be particularly highlighted as an assessment tool; to this aim the authors propose the photogrammetry method in ultra close-range mode. The ultra close-range photogrammetry is a total non-invasive method, fully portable, and easy to use. The cleaning treatments studied in this work are chemical cleaning, and laser cleaning. The obtained information on the third dimension of the surface by means of ultra close-range photogrammetry was compared with results performed by 3D optical microscope (only on selected single points). The colorimetric information on selected areas during and after the cleaning completes the surviving activity. The performed tests on the case study demonstrate the ability of the proposed approach to control the effectiveness of the cleaning procedures applied on wall paintings during conservation interventions. The advantages due to the portability and to the non-destructivity of photogrammetry (no-contact measurement method) with regard to others techniques candidates, led this methodology to be used in wider restoration works.

Keywords: Ultra close-range photogrammetry; Cleaning treatments; Surface pattern surviving; Colorimetric analysis; Monitoring.

S.N. Manrique Tamayo, J. Valcarcel Andres, J. Osca Pons

Applications of Reflectance Transformation Imaging for Documentation and Surface Analysis in Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 535-548
Conservators at Universitat Politécnica de Valencia, Spain, explore the advantages and potential applications of Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) as an innovative instrument for the documentation and analysis of texture of cultural objects undergoing conservation treatments. A computational photography technique, RTI creates highly accurate and interactive images, where objects can be illuminated from different directions and through a variety of filters to emphasize their surface texture and color. RTI was implemented to try the technique effectiveness for performing detailed examination and diagnostics on a variety of materials, including paintings, works on paper, wooden sculptures, metals, and stone. Resulting images yielded new and valuable information in the identification of manufacturing techniques and assessments of surface condition that were not previously recognized through direct examination or any other photographic techniques. RTI also proved highly effective for detailed documentation of painting and paper objects before and after treatments, helping to assess many subtle changes on pictorial layers and paper supports caused by conservation processes. RTI is an affordable and accessible resource which would be beneficial for to both cultural institutions and individual conservators for the interpretation and evaluation of cultural heritage.

Keywords: Reflectance Transformation Imaging; Texture; Computational Photography; Raking light; Surface examination

A. Popovska, S.M. Miljkovic

IRR Investigations of the Over-painted Layers on Two Ohrid Icons

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 549-562
The Icon Gallery in Ohrid, Macedonia presents 36 icons chronologically dated from the early 11th until the first half of the 19th century. Most of the icons from the Byzantine period are still exhibited with over-painted layers. Through IRR researches performed on two icons from this period, Jesus Christ from 1262/3 and Archangel Gabriel (Annunciation) from the 11th or 12th century, the authentically painted layer was distinguished. This method enabled panoramic visibility of the original drawing, distinct from the style that became public portrayal of these well-known icons. Conceiving these facts, old conservation dilemmas have been resolved and scientific conservation brought its contribution to their authentication.

Keywords: Icon; Over-painting; IRR method, Authentic layer

I. Popister, Z. Slizkova, M. Havelcova, I. Sykorova, A. Zeman

The Effects of Air Pollution on the Statue of Saint George and the Dragon in Cluj-Napoca, Romania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 563-572
The study presents the effects of air pollution on a historical symbol of Cluj-Napoca. The statue of Saint George and the Dragon is a copy made in 1904 by Kalman Lux. The original statue built in 1373 by two metalworkers Martin and George from Cluj, is in Prague, Czech Republic. The pedestal of the statue was built using the “Baciu Limestone” due to its famous white color. The “Cluj Limestone” is a white-yellow Cenozoic limestone, with high water uptake and porosity, which allows large amounts of water to easily be stored within the limestone. According to the emissions inventory provided by The Regional Agency for Environmental Protection from Cluj-Napoca for the years 2004-2010 the emission values of SO2, NOx and SPM decreased comparing to the years 1992-2002, and the ammonia values were relatively constant. The results indicate the presence of a black layer of different thickness on the surface of the samples which consists mainly of new formed gypsum. The sample extracts indicate a dominance of phthalates, and the pyrolysis has identified substances characteristic for the products of incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials.

Keywords: Air pollution; Baciu Limestone, Black crust; Cultural heritage; SO2; NOx; SPM

I. Sandu, O. Mircea, I.G. Sandu, V. Vasilache

The Liesegang Effect on Ancient Bronze Items Discovered in Romania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 573-586
Most archaeological bronze items discovered in recent years in Moldova and Dobrogea (Romania) have corrosion crusts on their surface, concentrically or radially stratified. This phenomenon, known as the Liesegang effect, manifests itself differently in regard to its extension, stratification and disposition, according to the base alloy composition, the nature of the primary patina and the conservation state at abandonment, as well as to the soil conditions and soil aggressiveness. In our study, in which we used OM and SEM-EDX analysis, we found a 3D spatial distribution of the different Liesegang effects, each layer being formed from a separate dominant compound, contaminated with the main compound of the neighboring layer. The objects that are totally corroded, without a metallic core, it has a central gray-colored compound, which contains chlorine and l tin, with a greatly reduced composition of copper, compared to the base alloy, over which there formed mineralized layers of cuprite, malachite, azurite, nantokite, atacamite, paratacamite etc.. The morphology and distribution of the layers is determined by the shape of the original object and the processing technique used for its manufacture.

Keywords: Ancient bronze objects; Liesegang effect; Primary, secondary and contamination patina; OM; SEM-EDX

P. Tarizzo, A. Formia, J.M. Tulliani, M. Zerbinatti, A. Schiavi

A New Non Invasive Method to Evaluate the Detachments of Plasters. First Results

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 587-592
The conservation of the historical finishes represents a difficult issue, due to their aesthetical and functional roles. In particular, the investigation on surfaces (external o internal) with wall paintings represent a typical case where researchers has some difficulties to apply non invasive diagnostic technique about the detachment of these surfaces. The method here described is aimed at the definition of a scientific method for the evaluation of the adhesion between the fresco and the wall. To this end a proper measuring instrument, based essentially on the principle of stationary waves and suitable for easy use in situ, has been designed and realized. To better understand the range of reliability of the instrument and its limits, a set of measurements were carried out on a testing masonry. On this wall two layers of lime plaster were applied and different typologies of detachments were artificially created.

Keywords: Non invasive diagnostic technique; Detachment detection; Acoustical method; Decorated surfaces preservation

R. Viegas, V. Corregidor, M.T. Pena, E. Alves, L.C. Alves

Preliminary Studies on Iron Gall Inks Composition Using an External Ion Beam

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 593-602
In this work we present and discuss the results obtained by Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) using an external proton microbeam in documents from the 19th and 20th centuries. Spot analysis and 2D elemental distribution maps were performed in inked and non-inked areas of the documents. Comparison between different types of iron gall inks and paper composition was also made using photography under UV and near IR light. These techniques revealed to be very useful in detecting changes in paper and inks such as corrosion or deterioration. The results showed that besides sulphur and iron, the presence of other metals are helpful to identify different inks in the same document as well as different paper manufacture techniques.

Keywords: Iron gall ink; External proton beam; PIXE; UV and IR photography.

2. Environmental and Nano-Sciences for Conservation

T. Rosado, M.R. Martins, M. Pires, J. Mirão, A. Candeias, A.T. Caldeira

Enzymatic Monitorization of Mural Paintings Biodegradation and Biodeterioration

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 603-612
Biodegradation and biodeterioration of mural paintings by microorganisms is an important research field that needs novel approaches to fully understand the mechanisms and effects. In this work, the presence of microorganisms and their biological activity were investigated by extra and intracellular enzymatic monitorization. The enzymes arylsulphatase, β-glucosidase, dehydrogenase and phosphatase were used as biomarkers of the microbial metabolic activity. The viability cellular assays revealed a relationship with the degradation levels of the paintings. In this way, the metabolic activity of the microbial population can be correlated with the contamination levels detected and with biodegradation and biodeterioration status of the paintings. Therefore, enzymatic approaches constitute good biomarkers to be applied in this research field and are useful to detect biodeteriogenic and biodegradation agents.

Keywords: Mural paintings; Biodegradation; Biodeterioration; Enzymatic monitorization; Viability assays

R. Radvan, I.M. Cortea, D. Ene, A. Radvan

Contemporary Art Materials Tests

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 613-620
The present report is related to a running project on contemporary visual art conservation and is considering various case studies, involving different techniques. On one hand the research investigates by means of advanced optoelectronical methods a series of modern artworks, while on another approach is testing today’s art materials stability by undergoing accelerated ageing. The multiannual research’s main aim is to create a new scientific approach in contemporary visual art and start up an advance form of specialization in restoration/conservation based on rigorous organized information about new materials and techniques, all with full and deep respect for contemporary artists and their artwork. The general objective is absolutely thought not to constrain the artists’ practice, but to inform them and to create necessary set-ups and comprehensive databases, as decisive information for the restorers’ community of tomorrow.

Keywords: Contemporary art; Photonic techniques; Accelerated ageing; Ultraviolet exposure; Materials stability; Photodegradation; Color

3. Conservation Science from Industry to the Lab

P. Calicchia

An Overview of the Development of the Acoustic Imaging ACEADD Technique: The Sound of Frescoes

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 621-632
To extensively characterize heterogeneous structures such as mural paintings on site, an experimental method and the relative device, denominated Acoustic Energy Absorption Diagnostic Device, were purposely implemented. The system provides acoustic images of the painted surface, localizing detachments and flaws where the acoustic energy absorption is considerable. Different phases from laboratory validation on suitable models, functional to the patenting process, to the field validation on real frescoes, glazed ceramic tiles and panel paintings, from the customization of the device’s configuration, to the study of important metrological aspects were oriented to the realization of a suitable diagnostic tool for helping conservator scientists in the preventive field diagnostics. In the present paper the overall experience in the development of the acoustic imaging technique is reviewed in order to present some reflections regarding the way to support innovation in the Cultural Heritage domain. Few key factors for the advancement of innovative technologies are identified: a suitable metrological approach for the assessment of the method’s applicability; the construction of a joint environment for a systematic and participated field experimentation; an accurate planning of significant comparisons between different methodologies; a constant attention towards protocols and procedures optimization as well as towards technical innovations.

Keywords: Acoustic imaging; Detachments; Frescoes; Glazed ceramic tiles; Panel paintings

H. Meyer, K. Saborowski, T. Markevicius, N. Olsson, R. Furferi, M. Carfagni

Carbon Nanotubes in Art Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 633-646
Ever since their discovery in 1991 carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have inspired scientists and developers of future technologies. They feature an electrical conductivity similar to copper, a thermal conductivity similar to diamond, and a modulus more than hundred times greater than steel. Many companies are working intensively on the development of CNT technology and applications. New catalysts have been developed which are capable of forming the tiny and thin-walled carbon nanotubes without any impurities. Based on these new industrial processes, cost efficient mass production has become viable. Perhaps one of the greatest technological potentials of CNTs at the present time lies in their electrical and thermal properties. CNTs are not only extremely light and robust, but can also efficiently heat up surfaces of any size utmost evenly with very rapid thermal response which can guarantee ultra-steady temperatures over large surface areas as well as short heating and cooling times. In order to use these properties in art conservation, the IMAT-project has been launched. The project is supposed to create a series of innovative and highly accurate mild and flexible heating devices for the conservation of various kinds of cultural heritage.

Keywords: Nanotechnology; CNT; IMAT-heater; Mild heating; Art conservation

4. Conservation Science from the Lab to the Field

E. Darque-Ceretti, M. Aucouturier

Gilding for Matter Decoration and Sublimation. A Brief History of the Artisanal Technical Know-how

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 647-660
The process used to decorate art objects with thinner and thinner gold coatings varied during centuries. Foil or leaf metal gilding technology was complemented around the beginning of the Christian era by mercury gilding. Simultaneously was developed in some geographic areas the surface depletion process for gilded copper/silver alloys. This paper is motivated by the recent publication by the authors of a didactic opus devoted to the description and the discussion of the technical history of the various gilding procedures, based on the study by modern investigation techniques of a number of gilded museum objects. Through examples from laboratory studies on museum objects, the main evolution steps of gold application are described. A recent mechanical modelling work about gold leaf forming by beating is reported. The different coating processes are discussed, depending on the substrate nature and surface treatment before gilding. It includes high temperature firing for mercury gilding, or powder gilding, e.g. on Middle-Age Syria glass. The paper ends with a listing of the research perspectives open for the presently poorly developed study of the adhesion mechanisms between gold leaf and its substrate. It discusses the important issue of gold-metal interdiffusion during metal gilding processes involving a high temperature step.

Keywords: Antic gilding; Modern gilding; Leaf gilding; Fire gilding; Powder gilding; Leaf adhesion; Gold-metal diffusion; Surface preparation

S.S. Gomes, E. Figueiredo, M.F. Araujo, F. Lopes, J.C. Senna-Martinez

Isotopic Lead Characterization of Archaeological Bronzes from Fraga Dos Corvos (N Portugal)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 661-672
A set of bronzes recovered from Fraga dos Corvos (Macedo de Cavaleiros) archaeological site, located in Northern Portugal, was analyzed to investigate their lead isotope ratios. The studied metallic artefacts have diverse typologies and include two bar fragments, four fibulae, a pendant and fragments of a possible cauldron. Besides these, two metallurgical remains (nodule and droplet) were also analyzed. Elemental analysis by -EDXRF showed that bronzes have a Sn content varying between 5.1 and 13.9% and a Pb content from 1.4 to 6.1%, which allowed to select a suitable methodology for lead separation, prior to isotope ratio determinations. In these alloys the Pb isotope determinations (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) are influenced by matrix effects that decrease the sensitivity and the reproducibility of the measurements. Analytical procedure consisted in electrochemical Pb separation by anodic oxidation. The determination of Pb isotope ratios was made by ICP-MS with a quadrupole mass filter and provided the first results of Pb isotopic composition of bronze alloys from the Northern Portuguese territory. Isotope ratios determinations were obtained with a relative standard deviation below 0.5%. Pb isotope ratio distributions allowed the identification of different composition patterns indicating probable distinct provenances, although the similar isotopic ratios among some artefacts and the metallurgical remains pointed out to local metallurgical activities.

Keywords: Archaeological bronzes; Fraga dos Corvos; microEDXRF; Pb isotope ratio; Q-ICPMS

D. Magrini, G. Bartolozzi, S. Bracci, R. Iannaccone, V. Marchiafava, M. Picollo

The San Pietro Martire Triptych by Beato Angelico: Materials Characterization by Means of Integrated Non-Invasive Spectroscopic Measurements

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 673-680
This work presents some results showing how the integrated use of non-invasive spectroscopic techniques is extremely useful for deepening the knowledge of an artwork. The object under study is the Triptych of San Pietro Martire by Beato Angelico, (152 cm x 172 cm x 10 cm), a panel painting from the San Marco Museum in Florence. The analytical protocol was developed to characterize the materials used by the artist and to clarify some doubts concerning the dating. Fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS) was useful to obtain information concerning the composition of the artist's palette, composed of pigments commonly used in15th century Italian easel painting. Of particular interest, is the presence of green areas obtained by a mixture of azurite and lead and tin yellow. These data suggest that the painting could be dated back to the artist’s early period, when Beato Angelico was in contact with Lorenzo Monaco, while in his mature works, green parts were commonly painted with green pigments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurements integrated and completed the FORS results, allowing to better characterize most of the pigments. Furthermore, investigations carried out by portable total reflection infrared spectroscopy (TR-FT-IR) provided information about the organic materials used as binders, both in the ground and in the paint layers

Keywords: Non-invasive technique; FORS; XRF; portable FT-IR; Pigments and binders characterization

R. Maltieira Morais, A. Calvo, J. Cunha

Painting on Canvas – Three Sample Preparation Approaches for Fibres Optical Microscope Identification

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 681-684
In Portuguese painting, canvas is a common structural support. However, the historical documentation, material and technique on this fabric support are scarce. From the research that is being performed on the canvas in Portuguese painting, since its implementation to its industrial production, this article focuses on the challenges existing in the fibre preparation for microscopic examination. Since paintings are layered structures, fibres are usually impregnated with dust and various materials who migrated from other layers. To clean the micro-samples, three approaches of preparation were performed. The effectiveness of the cleaning of the fibres, for microscopic observation of their morphological characteristics, it is more difficult to achieve than the texts suggest.

Keywords: Canvas; Fibres; Sampling; Microscopic examination; Neutral detergent; Aqueous sodium hydroxide dissolution; Propanone

A. Maras, M. Botticelli, P. Ballirano

Archaeometric Investigations on Cinnabar Provenance and Origin by X-Ray Powder Diffraction: Preliminary Data

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 685-692
This study aims to focus on cinnabar extraction and trade routes in the Roman Age, when the pigment had its maximum spread, also to clarify if the practice of mixing sources from different quarries is reliable. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) has been used as a preliminary test to underline structural variation connected to cinnabar provenance: data from 14 mineralogical samples, coming from 11 different localities, were compared showing that detectable differences exist in terms of unit cell parameters and volume. The results highlight the potentiality of X-ray diffraction for provenance analysis.

Keywords: Cinnabar; Red pigment; X-ray powder diffraction; Deterioration; Provenance

N. Perez Ema, M. Alvarez de Buergo, R. Bustamante

Integrated Studies for the Evaluation of Conservation Treatments on Stone Material from Archaeological Sites. Application to the Case of Merida (Spain)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 693-700
The application of conservation treatments, such as consolidation and protection ones, has been demonstrated ineffective in many cases, and even harmful. Evaluation studies should be a mandatory task, ideally before and after the intervention, but both tasks are complex and unusual in the case of archaeological heritage. This study is mainly focused on analyzing changes in petrophysical properties of stone material from archaeological sites of Merida (Spain), evaluating, both on site and in laboratory, effects derived from different conservation treatments applied in past interventions, throughout the integration of different non-destructive techniques (NDT) and portable devices of analysis available at the Institute of Geosciences (CSIC,UCM). These techniques allow, not only assessment of effectiveness and alteration processes, but also monitoring durability of treatments, focused mainly on 1996 intervention in the case of Roman Theater, as well as different punctual interventions from the 90’s until date in the House of Mitreo. Studies carried out on archaeological sites of Merida permit us to compare outcomes and also check limitations in the use of those equipments. In this paper we discuss about the use of some techniques, their integration and limits, for the assessment of conservation treatments, showing some examples of Merida’s case study.

Keywords: NDT; Conservation; Treatments; Archaeological sites; Evaluation

O. Mircea, I. Sandu, V. Vasilache, A.V. Sandu

Applications of Optical Microscopy and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy in the Study of a Pendant from the IIND -IIIRD Century AC

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 701-709
Our paper presents the study of a basket-shaped pendant from the 2nd-3rd century A.C., discovered inside a funeral urn, in the Gabăra-Moldoveni necropolis, Neamț county (Romania), in which we used optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) The results of our experiments revealed that the corrosion crust contained complex, surface and interior structures. The exterior layer was relatively uniform, but the interior one was non-homogeneous, with a variable porosity. Those structures were generated under the anthropic influences, by burning rituals undergone before abandonment and under the influence of the environment in which the object was discovered, which triggered evolving processes of physical-structural and chemical deterioration. Their positioning, the morphology and the composition of the two structures (the surface and the area of contact with the basic alloy) were used to perform archaeometric evaluations.

Keywords: Pendant; Funeral urn; Gilded silver; OM; SEM-EDX

V. Vasilache, I. Sandu, O. Mircea, A.V. Sandu

Study on the Conservation State of a Gilded Silver Coin From XVTH Century, Discovered in Romania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 710-714
The article presents the study of a XV Century coin discovered during the rehabilitation works at the Municipal Library „George Radu Melidon” Roman, Romania. The involved methods were non-destructive, like optical and electron microscopy and the experimental results highlighted the conservation state of the artefact and the chemical composition of the base alloy and gilding.

Keywords: Coin; Gilded silver; Conservation state; Archaeometric characteristics; OM; SEM

5. Nano-Tools and Materials for the Scientific Conservation

J. Domingues, N. Bonelli, R. Giorgi, E. Fratini, P. Baglioni

Innovative Method for the Cleaning of Water-Sensitive Artifacts: Synthesis and Application of Highly Retentive Chemical Hydrogels

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 715-722
Cleaning is one of the most important processes for the conservation of cultural heritage artifacts, but also one of the most delicate and potentially damaging to the original materials. Nowadays, aqueous cleaning is usually preferred to cleaning with organic solvents, because it is environmental friendly and less aggressive to artifact’s materials. However, in some circumstances, such as cleaning paper documents, easel paintings and textiles, water-based systems can be invasive. The interaction of water with the hydrophilic support favors mechanical stresses between substrate and paint layers, which can eventually lead to paint detachment or paint leaching. Water-based detergent systems (such as micellar solutions and oil-in-water microemulsions) offer several advantages in terms of selectivity and gentle removal of hydrosoluble (e.g. grime) and hydrophobic (e.g. aged adhesive) materials. The confinement and controlled release of these water-based systems is achieved through the synthesis and application of chemical hydrogels specifically designed for cleaning water-sensitive cultural heritage artifacts. These gels are based on semi-interpenetrating p(HEMA)/PVP networks. Semi-IPN hydrogels are prepared by embedding linear polyvinylpyrrolidone physically into a network of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate). Water retention and release properties were investigated. The micro-porosity was studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy. To demonstrate both efficiency and versatility of the selected hydrogels in confining the most appropriate water-based cleaning system a representative case study is presented.

Keywords: Semi-IPN hydrogels; Cleaning; Nanocontainers; Gel structure.

6. Outreach and dissemination Tools for Conservation

M. Bogdanowska, M. Taylor

IMD Interdisciplinary Multilingual Dictionary a New Online Tool for Communication

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 723-728
The concept for a bilingual dictionary of art restoration emerged from the need for professional dictionaries to ease the process of translation and speed communication between scientific disciplines. The Art Restoration Dictionary (ARD) is a bi-lingual set of glossaries of terms, currently in English and Polish, with Latin terms in certain chapters. It is essentially a dictionary of restoration-conservation terms, but it also provides a practical method of dealing with the vocabulary of other complex scientific disciplines within the multilingual context, through employment of modern techniques and tools. The current phase of the project is supported through grant funding by the Polish National Science Centre and will encompass new branches of art restoration and further languages.

Keywords: Art restoration; Glossary; Translation; Multilingual scientific dictionary.

S. Marvin

Copyright Innovation in Art

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 729-734
Art should be considered for its innovative expression. With art, comes context. The context of the work may be a reinterpretation or means of communicating a review, criticism, or other comment. Challenges of rights ownership, registration and copyright related to art images are helping create greater public interaction. Libraries, archives and museums are engaged with challenges of copyright while introducing digitization, access, considerations among owners, registrars, artists, publishers, scholars, and those with a passion for particular works of art, artists or artistic themes. Copyright is important to consider in advance of the works displayed. Documentation and agreements need to be flexible to meet a variety of needs. Assertions of copyright by institutions are made despite contrary clear public domain attributes. Alterations, derivative works, changes by masking or superimposing other graphic works affect copyright. Examples of art copyright challenges include cases for ethical questions and discussion. Beyond copyright are issues regarding privacy, injury, moral rights, amount used, compliance with donor wishes and rights to forget.

Keywords: Copyright; Digitization, Intellectual property; Art; Derivatives; Transformative; Challenges

Available online on 31.01.2014     


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Issue Cover

Volume 4, Issue 1, March 2013

Research Articles:

D.M. Goltz, B. Piniuta, E. Huebner, M. Attas, E. Cloutis, J. Broomhead

Spectroscopic Approaches for Studying Faint Text on a Wooden Tally from Invincible (1758)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 3-12
In this study we describe the application of X-ray fluorescence, variable pressure scanning electron microscopy and visible (420-720 nm) hyperspectral imaging to assess the surface properties of a wood tally stick that was recovered from the 3rd rate Invincible. The Invincible was a wooden warship that sunk in 1758. The main objective of this work was to improve the legibility of very faint text that was detected on the surface of one of the three tally sticks used in this project. For imaging, an ultraviolet light source was used to achieve reasonable contrast between the text and the wood and the optimal wavelength was found to be 365nm. Single band images at 550 nm gave the best contrast, particularly if flat fielding was used to compensate for uneven lighting of the wooden surface. Finally, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and SEM were used to assess the wood and possibly identify the material used to write on the tally stick. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images did not reveal the presence of any graphite particles or ink deposits, but the XRF indicated that there were higher levels of Fe where text was detected, which may indicate that an iron containing writing material was used to write on these tally sticks.

Keywords: wood; archaeology; hyperspectral imaging; SEM; XRF

M.R. Escorteganha, A.G. Santiago, H.A. Magosso, F.A. Richter, T.G. Costa

Conservation State of Mural Paintings from a Historic House in Florianópolis-SC, Brazil. A Multidisciplinary Approach

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 13-24
The scientific approach to conservation and monitoring of mural paintings executed in a historic house with an eclectic style of the twentieth century, located in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, is an example of interdisciplinary collaboration between conservators, historians, and scientists in planning and development actions for preventive maintenance as well as interventions of restoration. The mural paintings are recognized worldwide as an architectural element and property, which records the representations of the cultural landscape of an age. In this context, the painting technique found in this house and its state of conservation were investigated by evaluation of pigmented surfaces and then by optical and spectroscopic (IR and EDX) techniques. These results were crucial for the record of the characteristic painting present in this building, showing a period marked by intense urban renewal in Brazilian cities

Keywords: Mural paintings; pigments; infrared spectroscopy; EDX

N.A. Bader, W.K Al-Gharib

Restoration and Preservation of Engraved Limestone Blocks Discovered in Abu Mousa Excavation, Suez - Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 25-42
A lot of engraved limestone blocks were discovered at Awlad Abu Musa (east of Suez, Egypt) in 1995/2007 by Supreme Council of Antiquities. The stone blocks were seriously affected by archaeological environments during burial environment in agriculture land. They were covered with thick clay layer with soil particles that disfigured them and hid their inscriptions. Prior to the conservation intervention, the materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Chemical analyses of ground water and microbiological study. After the material characterization, the conservation and restoration of the stone blocks were carried out including cleaning, consolidation, reduction of salts, Re-jointing, restoration and completion of lost parts. After that the blocks were exhibited in Suez museum

Keywords: Excavation; Awlad Mousa; treatment; consolidation; desalination; Suez museum.

S. Hemeda

Geomechanical Investigations for Architectural Heritage Preservation. The Habib Sakakini Palace in Cairo, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 43-52
The understanding of the geotechnical problems and failure mechanisms of stone structures of Sakakini palace (1897 AC) entails a comprehensive study on the mechanical behavior of the stones and other construction materials. In addition to micro analysis, geological and geomorphologic interests, several investigations on stone deterioration and engineering geology were performed. First phase included more advanced techniques, which provided additional information on particular aspects of site deterioration and it included laser analysis (LIBS), electron probe micro analysis, micro XRD and XRF analyses, scanning electron microscope analysis coupled with EDX probing, transmission electron microscopy and grain size distribution analysis, permeability and pore size distribution of stone, mortars, core binders and other construction materials. Second phase included the determination of mechanical properties of building stones, such as compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, tensile strength, and shear strength. To obtain reliable values for these properties, a suitable number of samples should be extracted, prepared for testing, and properly tested. The test results are then analyzed to establish the investigated stone properties. The testing program includes extracting seven cylindrical cores from the basement stone walls of Sakakini’s mansion in down town Cairo. The objectives of the study are to provide a characterization of micro structures and the mechanical properties of the stones of Sakakini’s Mansion; The purpose of the present research is to provide recommendations regarding the strengthening and the safety of architectural heritage under long and short-term loading. For this purpose, a set of experimental tests and of advanced numerical analyses are to be carried out.

Keywords: Architectural heritage; Habib Sakakini palace; geotechnical; mechanical properties; stone deterioration; LIBS.

C.M. Daneasa

The Study of Conservation State of a Wooden Church from Boz Village, Hunedoara County, Romania

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 53-64
The study presents the conservation state of the wooden churches from Hunedoara County, Mures Valley, Boz village. This is an example of the rich patrimony of this area. The problems encountered at Boz church are the effects of different causes, including those with major impact: biological degradation and deterioration, human intervention and humidity effects. After analysing the state of conservation of this monument, we specified the interventions that need to be done at the building’s components, emphasizing especially the emergency measures that cannot wait. In order to save this monument, which is a representative one for the wooden architecture of this area, it is necessary to implement the scientific project and to establish certain specialized committees and teams, whose goal should be is to save the entire monument, not only parts of it– as it has been done so far at this church and at almost at all the studied churches.

Keywords: conservation state; wooden church; interventions; interior paint.

M.M. Saleh

Characterization of Qarh's Wall Plasters, Al-Ulla, Saudi Arabia. A Case Study

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 65-80
During five years (2008 to 2012) of field work in the restoration and conservation of the Qarh's monuments at Al-Ulla northwest Saudi Arabia, many kinds of wall plasters were studied, investigated and analyzed by the following methods: field observations, (visual examination), Optical Microscope (OM), Polarized Microscope (PM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), equipped with (EDS), and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD).Those methods of investigation and analysis helped us determine the Qarh's wall plasters. Four kinds of plasters were identified; white gypsum plaster, white gypsum and lime plaster, gypsum plaster over an insulating layer and lime plaster over an insulating layer. Their main components are gypsum, lime, sand and an additional material for improving plasters properties. Those results helped us to make a correct diagnosis, which is the first step in any conservation strategy.

Keywords: Qarh site; wall plaster; investigations; diagnosis.

S. Yapoga, Y.B. Ossey, V. Kouame

Phytoremediation of Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Chrome from Industrial Wastewater by Eichhornia Crassipes

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 81-86
Eichhornia crassipes was tested for its high capacity to bioconcentrate four heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Cu, and Cr) commonly found in wastewater from industries. Young plants of equal size were cultured in plastic tub containing industrial wastewater. Therefore, control experimental sets contained only mining effluent without any plants. The digested samples were analyzed for four metals (Zn, Cu, Cd and Cr) by a Perkin Elmer 3000DV Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES). Eichhornia crassipes removed appreciable amount of heavy metals during a 15 days experiment. Maximum removal of metals was recorded on the 10th day of exposure. Roots of Eichhornia crassipes proved better accumulator of the metals than leaves. Eichhornia crassipes can be used to serve as a phytoremediation plant in the cleaning up of Zn, Cd, Cu and Cr from industrial wastewater.

Keywords: Eichhornia crassipes; phytoremediation; accumulation capacity; industrial wastewater.

D.N. Gautam

Assessment of Wild Ungulates in the Karnali Flood Plain of Bardia National Park, Nepal

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 87-94
The population of ungulates depends on the habitat factors and prey-predator interaction. This study aims to explore the habitat preference of ungulates and their relation with associated predators in the Bardia National Park, Nepal. The study was based on the transect survey and indirect observation of ungulates. Spotted deer recorded the highest density and blue bull recorded the lowest. Hog deer preferred mostly flood plains habitat and barking deer preferring mixed hardwood forest and tall grass flood plains. However, barking deer completely avoided the riverine forest and flood plain habitats. Swamp deer preferred Phata (grassland) and blue bull was recorded only in flood plains. The higher concentration of ungulates’ pellet groups were found in areas close to water sources. The study concluded that different habitat features influence the distribution and abundance of ungulates. The higher density of spotted deer and hog deer suggests these species as the major prey base to maintain viable populations of tigers in the park.

Keywords: Bardia National Park; distribution; ungulate; habitat preference.

P. Singh, R. Chettri

A New Propagation Method for Rapid Multiplication of Chrysanthemum under in Vivo Conditions

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 95-100
A new method of propagation of chrysanthemum through leaf cuttings complimentary to the conventional method of shoot tip propagation was developed under in vivo conditions. The study was conducted during 2008-2011 at the research farm of the Department of Floriculture and Landscaping, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana, India. Two cultivars of chrysanthemum ‘Autumn Joy’ and ‘Garden Beauty’ were used for the study. Leaf cuttings consisting of leaf blade, petiole and an attached auxiliary bud, taken from different positions of the stem were treated with the combination of plant growth regulators (IBA and Kinetin). With this method, 10-15 new plants were produced from a single stem in contrast to the conventional method of propagation through terminal stem cuttings, which yielded only one plant per stem. The complete process of regenerating plants through this method is new, quick, simple, easy, economical and highly effective and takes the same time as conventional method) under in vivo conditions. This propagation technique is particularly useful when propagating material is scarce as from a small quantity of initial propagating material, a large number of plants can be produced.

Keywords: Chrysanthemum; propagation; leaf cuttings; growth regulators; plant regeneration.

R. Bahaguna, V. Prakash, H. Bisht

Quantitative Enhancement of Active Content and Biomass of Two Aconitum Species Through Suitable Cultivation Technology

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 101-106
High altitude medicinal plants are facing problem due to their unsustainable utilization. So, the cultivation of these plants with appropriate technology may fulfill the demand of pharmaceutical industry and may also promote the conservation at their natural habitat. Highly important two species of Aconitum were studied for the enhancement of net profit by applying protected farming system. Both the experimental species were grown under natural and greenhouse conditions. Very positive results were obtained in plants of both Aconitum species grown under greenhouse as compared to natural conditions. Enhancement in yield was 12 and 9 times high in Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle and Aconitum balfourii Stapf. respectively grown under greenhouse as compared to natural condition. Pseudoaconitine and aconitine were also observed high in greenhouse grown (0.51% and 0.42% respectively) than naturally grown plants (0.49% and 0.40% respectively). The quantity of atisine and aconitine was also found high (0.35% & 0.27% respectively) in greenhouse than naturally grown plants (0.19% & 0.16% respectively). It was noticed that plant height, leaf number, and average length of tubers were high in plants grown inside greenhouse in contrast to natural habitat. Almost five and two folds more tubers were found in A. balfourii and A. heterophyllum respectively in plants grown under greenhouse in comparison to natural conditions.

Keywords: Aconitum balfourii; Aconitum heterophyllum; greenhouse; natural condition; active content; pseudoaconitine; aconitine; atisine.

M. Kabir, M.S. Awan, M. Anwar

Distribution Range and Population Status of Common Leopard (Panthera Pardus) in and Around Machiara National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 107-118
The present study was conducted to estimate the status of common leopard (Panthera pardus) in and around Machiara National Park (MNP) Azad Jammu and Kashmir between May 2007 and July 2008. Fifteen fixed transects were monitored on regular basis. Indirect signs of leopard such as pugmarks and scats were recorded along the transects in addition to people and livestock which were counted as an index of disturbance and mean encounter rate for leopard scats, footprints, livestock and people was calculated. Mean encounter rate for leopard pugmarks was 1.6, for scats 2.11, for livestock 25.03, and for people 22.48. Linear measurements of front and hind pugmarks and strides were classified which indicated that at least five to nine (06-09) individuals are present in the study area (13,532 ha). Questionnaire survey revealed that Leopards were sighted by the locals at 23 locations during the study period including; in the morning (35%), evening (29%), night (21%) and daytime (15%). Maximum sightings were recorded between 4765ft to 9634ft elevation presenting moist temperate zone with Pinus wallichiana as a dominant tree species. As a result of increasing biotic pressures, the leopard has become rare with growing threat of further degradation and fragmentation of its habitat. It may cause the species to depend more on the domestic livestock available in and around the area giving way to the problem of human-leopard conflict. The information generated from the study will be helpful for the conservation and management of this critically endangered species.

Keywords: Common leopard; status; threats, Machiara National Park.

A. Purohit, P. Soni, A. Kaur, H. Ram

Eco-Status of Chiropteran Fauna in and Around Barmer, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 119-123
The survey was carried out from 2010 to 2012 to assess the eco-status of chiropterans in and around Barmer (24°85’04” to 26°32’20”N Latitudes and 70°05’35’’ to 72°52’14’’E Longitudes) in the Great Indian Desert (Thar Desert), India. The population dynamics, species richness and distribution of bats were examined at all possible sites revealing that eco- transformation in this area positively affecting the chiropteran bio-diversity and richness in this area. Up to 1982 only three microchiropteran species i.e. Rhinopoma microphyllum kinneari, Pipistrellus tenuis, Taphozous perforatus perforatus were recorded in this area and the present study revealed five new species in this area. The newly species added from microchiropterans are Rhinopoma hardwickii, Taphozous melanopogon, Taphozous nudiventris and from megachiroptera i.e. Cynopterix sphinx, Pteropus giganteus giganteus. These findings suggest that eco- transformation in and around Barmer area of Thar desert positively affect the demography and species richness of bats in this area.

Keywords:Eco status; Chiroptera; Eco-transformation; Thar Desert; Barmer.

Available online on 08.02.2013     


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Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2013

Research Articles:

A.M. Eriksen, K.P. Simonsen, A.R. Rasmussen

Conservation of Mitochondrial DNA in Fast Enzyme-Macerated Skeletal Material

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 127-132
In this study we describe the application of X-ray fluorescence, variable pressure scanning electron microscopy and visible (420-720 nm) hyperspectral imaging to assess the surface properties of a wood tally stick that was recovered from the 3rd rate Invincible. The Invincible was a wooden warship that sunk in 1758. The main objective of this work was to improve the legibility of very faint text that was detected on the surface of one of the three tally sticks used in this project. For imaging, an ultraviolet light source was used to achieve reasonable contrast between the text and the wood and the optimal wavelength was found to be 365nm. Single band images at 550 nm gave the best contrast, particularly if flat fielding was used to compensate for uneven lighting of the wooden surface. Finally, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and SEM were used to assess the wood and possibly identify the material used to write on the tally stick. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images did not reveal the presence of any graphite particles or ink deposits, but the XRF indicated that there were higher levels of Fe where text was detected, which may indicate that an iron containing writing material was used to write on these tally sticks.

Keywords: forensic science; mtDNA; conservation; enzyme maceration; skeletal material; bones

O.A. Cuzman, R. Olmi, C. Riminesi, P. Tiano

Preliminary Study on Controlling Black Fungi Dwelling on Stone Monuments by Using a Microwave Heating System

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 133-144
Microcolonial black fungi have their natural ecological niche on rocks and walls of hypogean environments, playing an important role in the deterioration of materials and aesthetical alteration of monumental stones and mortars. Three black fungi (Sarcinomyces sp., Pithomyces sp. and Scolecobasidium sp.) have been isolated from cultural assets of historical interest. These fungal strains have been used to test the microwave heating method as a new control methodology for eradicating the fungal biological growth on cultural stone artifacts. This methodology is based on a 2.45 GHz microwave electromagnetic radiation, generated by a new apparatus with an appropriate applicator. The first results showed the best dose of 65°C for three minutes, for all the investigated fungal strains. This methodology is very promising because is safety for the operator and the environment, and can be easily applied on site. The use of this method to kill biodeteriogens can avoid the application of chemicals formulates potentially dangerous for substrates and environment.

Keywords: black fungi; marble; hypogean monument; biodeterioration; microwave heating

S.S. Darwish

Scientific Investigation of the Materials and Techniques Used in a 19th Century Egyptian Cemetery Wall Painting (Hawsh Al-Basha)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 145-152
The present research was carried out to obtain more information on materials and painting techniques used in Egyptian wall paintings during the 19th century. The Hawsh al-Basha courtyard, dating back to Mohammed Ali's family period (1805-1952,) was studied for this purpose. The obtained results will be used to set up a scientific plan for restoration and preservation. Pigments, including white zincite, earth green, blue synthetic ultramarine, yellow massicot, black a mixture of magnetite & graphite, brownish red lead and brass were identified. The binding medium in the painting was identified as animal glue. Two preparation layers were identified: the inner coarse ground layer, composed of gypsum as a major component, with calcite and small amounts of quartz and the outer, fine ground layer, composed of calcite only. Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy coupled with Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (SEM-EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuation Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) were used in our study.

Keywords: Wall painting; Hosh Al-Basha, OM; SEM-EDX; XRD; FTIR-ATR.

S.A.M. Hamed, M.F. Ali, N.M.N. Elhadidi

Assessment of Commonly Used Cleaning Methods on the Anatomical Structure of Archaeological Wood

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 153-160
This study was conducted to diagnose and evaluate the effect of commonly used cleaning methods in Egypt on the anatomical structure of archaeological wood samples. Beech wood samples, which were taken from anonymous mashrabia, have been cleaned mechanically and chemically, then a scanning electron microscope (SEM) study was undertaken, to monitor any significant structural changes in wood samples due to cleaning processes. SEM data, however, show that cleaning procedures, both mechanical and chemical, affect the anatomical structure of wood, and do not achieve the best result. The main problem is that the effect of reagents cannot be easily removed from the wood structure. Ethyl alcohol proved to have the minimal effect on the wood structure in this study.

Keywords: Archaeological wood; mechanical cleaning; chemical cleaning; SEM.

M. Singh, B. Arbad

Chemistry of Preservation of the Ajanta Murals

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 161-176
Dated between 2nd B.C. and 6th A.D., Ajanta hosts exclusive paintings of tempera technique on a mud/lime plaster, in India. After its discovery in 1819, Ajanta attracted hoards of eager copiers, who applied many kinds of varnishes to brighten the colour enough to copy the paintings, thereby causing a long term impact on pigments and plasters. Many physical-chemical conservation measures were also carried out by international/Indian conservators to evolve and develop a suitable methodology for painting conservation. After taking over in 1953, the Archaeological Survey of India gave highest priority and setup an expert panel to regulate and suggest ways and means for the preservation of the Ajanta murals. The work carried out at Ajanta by various agencies are scattered and to the present day conservators are not fully aware about all of them. Since, all previous conservation measures had a direct impact on the state of conservation of the Ajanta murals, compilations of all works, done by a literature survey, were needed for the benefit of conservators, so as to understand and develop an appropriate, newer methodology. The measures adopted ever since the discovery of Ajanta, up to the end of the 19th century are listed.

Keywords: Preservation; Tempera; Coarse plaster; Mud plaster; Ochre; Fumigation.

H.E. Ahmed

Protease Enzyme Used for Artificial Ageing on Modern Cotton Fabric for Historic Textile Preservation and Restoration

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 177-188
Some of Historical textiles objects in Egyptian museums are containing different types of adhesives from previous restoration processes. Furthermore, they may contain some protein stains such as blood stains, which could involve more damage for the historical textiles. In the context of removing the adhesives by various methods, one may cause damage in the textiles, therefore the biotechnological application of enzymes seems to be a very promising approach in the restoration of historical objects. Our results show that enzyme removing is the most effective method, among all tested methods, in the removing of resistant old adhesives and stains. The tested enzymes for the removing technique solved the problems caused by other traditional removing techniques of resistant old adhesives from museum textiles. The main fibers of the tested objects were cotton fibers dyed with some natural dyes. Thus, the fibers that were used in this study were cotton, dyed with Turmeric dye, madder dye mordanted with alum, CuSO4 or Ferric Citrate, as well as without mordant. Additionally,we studied the effect of the enzyme on the mechanical parameters of fibers (Tensile strength, Elongation, Crystallinity index), by FTIR, XRD and ASTM. Furthermore, the effect of enzymes on the morphology of the surface of the untreated and enzymatically treated dyed fabric was investigated by using SEM and Stereoscopy. The effect of enzymes as a function of enzyme concentration and time of treatment on the fabrics color parameters was extensively studied. There was no impact-destructive effect on cotton fibers after the enzyme treatment. Thus, we could conclude that the enzyme have a very slight effect on cotton fibers dyed with natural dyes.

Keywords: Protease; removal; enzymes; cotton; natural dyes; SEM; FTIR

N.R. Modi, S.N. Dudani

Biodiversity Conservation Through Urban Green Spaces: A Case Study of Gujarat University Campus in Ahmedabad

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 189-196
The present study deals with the phytodiversity of Gujarat University campus and the surrounding region which forms an important green space in the urban environment of Ahmedabad city in Gujarat state, India. The extensive field surveys were carried out in the vast study area during 2004 to 2006 covering four different seasons viz. summer, winter, monsoon and spring to cover annual, biennial and perennial plants. A total of 451 species of flowering plants belonging to 338 genera and 101 families were recorded in the study area. Along with these three pteridophytes, two gymnosperms and the algae and fungi group appearing mostly in the monsoon season were also recorded in the study. Among the flowering plants, the herbs were found to be dominant, indicating they favored the climatic factors like less rainfall and high temperature in the study area. Raunkier’s biological life forms revealed the dominance of therophytes and phanerophytes, indicating ‘Thero-Phanerophytic’ phytoclimate in the region. The urban green spaces with such rich plant diversity need to be conserved, especially with the help of the local population, in order to maintain a good environment and biodiversity, thereby improving the overall quality of life.

Keywords: Gujarat University; urban; biodiversity; green space.

T.I. Borokini

The State of Ex-Situ Conservation in Nigeria

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 197-212
Ex-situ conservation is the process of protecting an endangered species of plant or animal by removing part of the population from a threatened habitat and placing it in a new location, which may be a wild area or within the care of humans. There are several methods of ex-situ conservation being practiced in various parts of the world. However, the ex-situ conservation methods used in Nigeria include botanic and zoological gardens, arboretum, genebanks and in-vitro storage, a few DNA banks and cryopreservation efforts, and there are no active pollen banks. This paper reviews the state of the ex-situ conservation sites in Nigeria in order to bridge the information gaps on the ex-situ conservation of genetic resources in Nigeria. The research institutions, Universities and relevant non-Governmental organizations involved in the conservation of genetic resources ex-situ were taken into account, while their germplasm collections were stated. The challenges faced by ex-situ germplasm conservation were discussed and the role of the Government in improving those situations was emphasized.

Keywords: Ex-situ; botanic gardens; genebanks; DNA bank; cryopreservation; arboretum; pollen bank; in-vitro bank.

P.K. Yadav, K. Sarma, R. Kumar

A Framework for Assessing the Impact of Urbanization and Population Pressure on Garo Hills Landscape of North-East India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 213-222
The important factors influencing landscape changes could be climate, geology, topography, plant succession, species extinction and species evolution. Human, since time immemorial, have influenced the landscape they live in a variety of ways resulting in varied land use changes. Increase in population leads to the expansion in agriculture land, built-up areas, uncontrolled forest fires, mining of minerals, extraction of timber and permanent plantations, which in turn are responsible for habitat degradation and loss of biodiversity. Garo hills districts of Meghalaya are endowed with rich biodiversity both in terms of flora and fauna. With the increasing of population there is pressure exerted on these natural resources for the livelihood as there is hardly any alternative available. In the meantime small forest based urban centers were developed and with the expansion of these the requirement of the local people also changed. Due to urbanization and population pressure the traditional shifting cultivation (jhum), which is still the only livelihood of many areas of the Garo hills; have been converted into permanent cash crop areas. This conversion has a reverse impact on the environment. In the traditional jhumming method the native forests which were slushed and burned for agriculture purposes could revive in 18 to 20 years’ time (Jhum cycle). But due to the introduction of economically sound plantation crops like areca nut, cashew nut and tea the native diversity of the forest area is in the verse of extinction. The present study reveals that rapid population growth is the solely responsible factor for changes the landscape of Garo hills of Meghalaya.

Keywords: Garo hills; jhum; cash crop; urbanization; population pressure; roads diversion

G. Romanescu, C. Dinu, A. Radu, C. Stoleriu, A.M. Romanescu, C. Purice

Water Qualitative Parameters of Fluviatile Limans Located in the South - West of Dobrogea (Romania)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 223-236
The fluviatile limans in the south-west of Dobrogea are the most characteristic forms of this type, with an exclusive development on the territory of Romania. In time, they were interpreted as fluvio-maritime limans or even as fluvio-lacustrine limans. As a result of the fact that they are situated close to the Danube, bordering one of the driest regions of Romania, they have had diverse usage since ancient times. Because the fluviatile limans in Dobrogea are mostly used in pisciculture, the water qualitative parameters have to be monitored permanently. They also have a role in attenuating floods, acting as a tampon against flash floods. Consequently, they have a special local importance even today, feeding as much of the population as possible (directly or indirectly). From a geomorphological point of view the fluviatile limans in Dobogea were formed as a result of the withdrawal of the Romanian (Levantine). The decrease in depth may cause the flood waves to pass over the dams. In this case, the periodical drainage of lake cuvettes is required. The physical parameters of water (depth, transparency and temperature) as well as the chemical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, nitrites, phosphates and the Ca/Mg ratio) have been analyzed. From an ecological viewpoint, the fluviatile limans in the south-west of Dobrogea are suitable for fish breeding and for developing an adequate lacustrine life.

Keywords: fluviatile limans; geomorphological parameters; management; qualitative parameters

V. Prakash, A. Nainwal, A.S. Rawat, J.S. Chauhan, H. Bisht

Enhancement of Germination on Abrus Precatorius L. Seeds by Specific Pre-sowing Treatments

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 237-242
Herbal medicines are in great demand for preliminary health care due to their wide medicinal value, with no side effects. Since many species are used in the system of traditional medicine, scientists have great opportunities to develop appropriate packages of practices for their multiplication and conservation. Abrus precatorius is the native plant of India and used in many ways in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine. This seeds of the species is dormant due to hard seed coat. So the aim of the study is to remove seed dormancy and enhance germination capacity within a short period. To overcome the problem of dormancy, seeds were scarified by seed scarifier and sand paper and also treated with acid (H2SO4) and hot water just before sowing. 60-95% germination was achieved under different treatment conditions while the seeds without any treatment fail to germinate. The highest (95%) germination was observed just 12 days after sowing in seeds treated with concentrated H2SO4 for 120 minutes. 70-75% germination was achieved when the seeds were treated with acid for 105 and 135 minutes. Seeds treated with con. H2SO4 for 150, 90 and 60 minutes and also scarified by sand paper showed similar results with 60-65% germination. The seeds scarified by a mechanical scarifier and treated with hot water did not show more than 32.5% germination.

Keywords: Abrus precatorius; pre-sowing; water imbibition; scarification; mechanical scarifier; germination

R. Tewari, G.S. Rawat

Assessment of Swamp Deer Habitat in and Around Jhilmil Jheel Conservation Reserve, Haridwar, Uttarakhand, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 243-249
Swamp deer (Rucervus duvaucelii duvaucelii) or Barasingha is categorized as vulnerable on the IUCN Red list. With a global population of less than 5,000 the species has a very limited distribution spanning over 2,000 km2 in India and Nepal. A small population of swamp deer was recently rediscovered in Uttarakhand state at Jhilmil Jheel. This population warranted a conservation initiative because the habitat around this Conservation Reserve is heavily fragmented due to expansion of agriculture, habitation and various other land use practices. The reserve provides an area of only 0.009 km2 per animal, which is insufficient in maintaining a viable population of swamp deer. It is therefore important to identify further potential habitat and to begin linkages between existing and potential habitats. A habitat conservation evaluation can play a key role in influencing conservation strategies by conducting detailed research including identification of potential habitat blocks and suggesting linkages between existing and adjacent potential habitat blocks. In this way the initiative can help to increase the number of swamp deer and to maintain a viable population of the species.

Keywords: Habitat evaluation; home range; linkage; potential habitat; swamp deer.

Available online on 01.06.2013     


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Volume 4, Issue 3, September 2013

Research Articles:

M.M. Saleh

An Evaluation of the Conservation State of Qasr El-Emara, Al-Wajh, Saudi Arabia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 255-270
Qasr El-Emara, located in the center of the old city on Al-Wajh on the Red Sea coast, is an important historical coral building in the north of Saudi Arabia. This research aims to diagnose the current conservation state of Qasr El-Emara and to identify the building materials (stone, mortar, plaster and timber), the construction method and the deterioration and degradation effects on the Qasr El-Emara building. To achieve these objectives, we used a number of investigation and analysis methods, such as: field observations (visual examination), optical microscopy (OM), polarized microscopy (PM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique and image analysis (Sigma Scan Pro.5 of SPSS Inc.). The main building materials of Qasr El-Emara were identified as follow: limestone coral (three species), lime, gypsum mortar, two different plaster layers (external and internal lime plaster), and tamarisk wood, used for timbers and dormers. Random rubble (un-coursed) was the construction method. The most important aspects of damage we observed were the loss of mortar between the stone blocks, the loss of the external plaster layer, observed especially in the lower part of the building, spread cracks in the plaster layer and in the walls with partial collapses, and surface damage of the timber used for the construction of the main façade.

Keywords: Qasr El-Emara; building materials; examination; Coral limestone; deterioration and degradation effects.

S.S. Darwish, N.M.N. EL Hadidi, M. Mansour

The Effect of Fungal Decay on Ficus Sycomorus Wood

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 271-282
The deterioration of wood on account of microbiological agents is an acknowledged fact. Botryodiplodia theobromae - Trichoderma longibrachiatum - Aspergillus candidus - Aspergillus ustus and Aspergillus terreus were isolated from two wooden masks dating back to the Greek- Roman period in Egypt. The chemical composition of wood is easily affected after any attack and visible changes can be noticed clearly after some time, but the degree of deterioration of wood constituents cannot be estimated unless the wood is closely studied. Ficus sycomorus wood samples, which had been infected by the fungi isolated from the masks, were studied by using X Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuation Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR).

Keywords: Ficus sycomorus; Botryodiplodia theobromae; Trichoderma longibrachiatum; Aspergillus terreus; Aspergillus ustus; Aspergillus candidus; XRD; FTIR.

A.A. Sakr, M.F. Ghaly, M.F. Ali

The Use of Gamma Irradiation in the Sterilization of Streptomyces Colonizing the Tempra Paintings in Ancient Egyptian Tombs

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 283-294
Eight out of forty six Streptomyces strains from mural paintings at the Tell Basta and Tanis tombs were exposed to increasing doses (5, 10, 15, 20, 25kGy) of gamma irradiation. These strains varied in their resistance profile. S. canarius was the most resistant to gamma irradiation doses, as it was totally eliminated at 25kGy, whereas S. chibaensis and S. albidofuscus resisted to 20kGy and S. ambofaciens resisted 15kGy. The other strains under investigation showed a lower resistance to gamma irradiation. Tricyclazole (5, 7, 10 µg/mL) inhibited melanin production after gamma irradiation at doses lower than lethal dose. Gamma irradiation with the previous doses enhanced the chitinease activity of irradiated Streptomyces strains, but S. canarius was the exception. No color change was observed either for pigments or for binding media, after gamma irradiation at the same doses.

Keywords: Gamma irradiation; melanin; mural paintings; streptomyces; tricyclazole

S.P. Gupta

The Role of Fungi in Degradation and Deterioration of Monuments: Mahadev and Surya Temples in Narayanpur, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 295-300
Thirteen species of fungi were obtained out of ten samples (five samples of each monument) collected from various places of stone structures of the monuments. Aspergillus fumigatus Fr.species are found in all samples and their percentage frequency is very high. Aspergillus fumigatus Fr., Aspergillus terreus Thom. And Aspergillus flavus fungal species are common on stone of the monument. There should be given priority to the characteristic features of stone structures, their different forms, designs and materials in finding the cause(s) of their degradation and deterioration) This study infers that in the degradation and deterioration of stone there is equal contribution by microbes and the design of stone structures. Hence the nature of the substrate, the relation between substrate and organism, the relation between the design and growth of organism, their frequency distribution are essential components in stone monument preservation interventions.

Keywords: Microorganism; biodeterioration; biodegradation; conservation state; preservation; biofilm; pigment.

G. Abdel-Maksoud, A.R. El-Amin, F. Afifi

The Insecticidal Activity of Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Alternifolia) Against the Common Pest in Mummies (Dermestes Maculatus)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 301-306
Egyptian mummies show different signs of deterioration caused by insects, such as missing parts, gaps and accumulated dust. Dermestes maculatus is one of the serious pests that cause damage to Egyptian mummies. To assess the insecticidal activity of tea tree oil against the larvae of the museum insect pest Dermestes maculatus (isolated from Egyptian mummies) we tested it under different concentration and treatment times by the bioassay methods. Our results showed that tea tree oil diluted in ethanol was highly toxic to Dermestes maculatus larvae. Insecticidal activity depended on both concentration and exposure time. By increasing the concentration level and the exposure time we obtained a higher mortality rate.

Keywords: Mummy; tea tree oil; Dermestes maculates; biological activity.

W.H. Abweini, R.N. Hammad, A.E.M. Abdeen, M.M. Hourani

Reconstructing Salah Al-din Minbar of Al-Aqsa Mosque: Challenges and Results

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 307-316
Salah Al-Din Minbar (pulpit) has a distinguished value in Islamic art, which is originated from its historical value of being constructed 800 years ago representing a symbol of dignified historical era; and to its political value as this Minbar had formed an emotional spur during the Crusades; and above all it is considered as one of the most beautiful and finest pieces of Islamic decoration art. After a devastating arson blaze nothing was left of the Minbar except some wooden pieces and few photographs that had been taken at previous periods of time. The need to rebuild and renovate Salah Al-Din Minbar of the Aqsa Mosque as similar to the original Minbar has arisen and met the Jordanian Royal mandate. This paper documents reconstructing the model Minbar to be exactly like the original one which was a sole job until the time, especially because of the decorations' diversity and the need to adopt the traditional craft techniques which require deliberate synthesized studies to prepare the drawings and construct the Minbar. The model Minbar was totally completed within 14 years.

Keywords: Minbar, original Minbar, model Minbar, main traditional decorative patterns, traditional craft techniques

J. Sethy, N.S. Chauhan

Human-Sun Bears Conflict in Mizoram, North East India: Impact and Conservation Management

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 317-328
Interactions between Malayan sun bears (Helarctos malayanus) and humans in Mizoram state. We carried out informal interview in 40 villages out of 60 villages covered, locating in and around the protected areas of Mizoram, North-eastern state, during 2008 to 2010. In total, there were 33 human casualties by sun bear during 2000-2010. Males were attacked (n=26, 78.8%) and female were attacked (n=7, 21.2%). Injuries were caused to face, nose, eyes, neck, hand and legs. Mark yearly variation of human sun bear casualties, the highest casualties (24.1%) during the year of 2002 and less casualties (3.0%) during the 2006. Bear attacks were recorded in all the seasons, but maximum cases occurred during autumn and winter months. During December, November, September, April, October and August 27.3 %, 21.2 %, 12.1 %, 9.1% and 6.1 % casualties respectively occurred. Out of 33 cases, victims were mainly in the age group of 31-40 years (45.5 %), followed by 21-30 years (33.3 %), and 41-50 years (12.1 %). Bear accounted for only 6.1 % and 3.0 % cases in the age group of 11-20 years and 51> years respectively. Information on sun bear attacks on human beings and circumstances are presented and discussed. Maximum cases i.e. 21 (63.6 %) occurred in forests, followed by 9 (27. 3 %) cases in crop fields and 3 (9.1%) cases in the vicinity of villages. These victims were involved in cattle grazing, farming or crop protection or moving in forests or vicinity of villages or non-timber forest produce collection. Most of these incidents occurred during morning, evening and night time when bears remained most active. Recommendations have been made for reducing conflict and conservation of sun bear.

Keywords: Human sun bears conflict, Mizoram, North-eastern state, India.

S.D. Tiwari, R. Joshi

Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Release Pattern of Some Prominent Tree Species in The Cool-Temperate Forests of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve in Uttarakhand, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 329-336
The present study was conducted in the buffer zone of the Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, which is situated in the Himalayan highlands, biogeographic province-2B in India. The area is completely protected since January 7th, 1939, when it was declared as a sanctuary. Now it has been included in the list of ‘World Heritage Sites’, since 1992. The area is reputedly one of the most spectacular wildernesses having qualitatively as well as quantitatively a unique biota, cultural heritage, religious faith, climate and soil type in the world. Geographically it falls between 30017’N to 30041’N latitude and 79040’E to 80005’E longitude and makes headwaters of Dhauliganga and Rishiganga, tributaries of the National river Ganga, in Uttarakhand. The parent material mainly represents crystalline rocks and comprises garnetiferous mica, schists, garnet mica and mica quartzite. The soil under broad-leaved forests is usually dark black and deep due to the decomposition of a large amount of accumulated organic matter, while under coniferous forests, it is generally light and shallow, due to the presence of hard rocks in soils and a smaller amount of organic matter. Out of the 10 identified species and their composition,, the moisture holding capacity of litter observed in composite leaf litter (19.73%) was the highest and in the Cedrus leaf litter (8.20% )the lowest. The turnover rate (r) ranged from 0.61 in Cedrus leaves to 0.74 in A. caesium, J. regia and Q. semecarpifolia leaf litter. The turnover time (t) was lowest for J. regia and A. caesium (1.35) and highest for the Cedrus leaf litter (1.65).

Keywords: Litter fall; litter decomposition; nutrients; nitrogen; phosphorus; potassium

J. Kalita, M.L. Khan

Medicinal Plants from the High Altitudes of the Western Part of Arunachal Pradesh, India and their Trade

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 337-346
The tremendous medicinal plant resources of Northeast India are utilized by different agencies as raw materials and/or for direct application. No proper assessment of the resources and no investigation on the extent of exploitation has been performed so far, especially in the high altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh viz., West Kameng and Tawang. That state is the richest in biodiversity, with high value medicinal and aromatic plants, as well as rare and endangered species. The medicinal plant species used in the herbal industry today are mostly extracted from the wild areas and most of them come from the high altitudes of this region. The present study gives an account on some preliminary observations about the commercial medicinal plants from the higher altitudes of Arunachal Pradesh, some of which being of immense economic value.

Keywords: Medicinal plants; Arunachal Himalaya; Taxus wallichiana; Illicium griffithii; commercial prospect

R.A. Mandal, I.C. Dutta, P.K. Jha, S. Karmacharya, S.M. Haque

Evaluating Public Plantation and Community Planted Forests under the CDM and REDD+ Mechanism for Carbon Stock in Nepal

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 347-356
Public plantations (PPs) and Community planted forests (CPFs) are inimitable types of participatory forest management practices in Nepal, but their eligibility issues under the framework of clean development mechanism (CDM) and reducing emission from the deforestation and forest degradation mechanism (REDD+) are not evaluated. So, to explore the management system of PP and CPF, we compared forest carbon stocks in plantations and evaluated these plantations under these mechanisms as objectives of this research. The relevant documents were revised and altogether 55 samples were collected from Shreepur, Banauta and Bisbity PPs and Sita, Ramnagar and Jogikuti CPFs, in Mahottary district, Nepal. The equation of Chave et al was used to calculate the biomass, which was further converted into carbon. Meanwhile, management practices were evaluated under the framework of CDM and REDD+. The PPs are public land managed, especially by disadvantaged communities, while CPFs are the patches of national forest managed by users. The variation in carbon stock was found to be highest (148.89 ton ha-)1 in Sita CPF and lowest (30.34 ton ha-)1 in Bisbitty PP. In fact, it is difficult to certify plantations under CDM, due to its complexity, but they can easily be candidate to the REDD+ mechanism, if they are bundled with large forest blocks.

Keywords: CDM; REDD+; community; public plantation; carbon stock; bundling

Y.E. Kouakou, B. Kone, G. Cisse, K.B. Dje, Y.A. N’go, A.A. Konare, I. Savane

Environmental Vulnerability Index: Application to the White Bandama Bassin In the Northern Côte D’ivoire

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 373-383
The White Bandama Basin (WBB) faces multiple changes that could undermine it. In order to analyze its sensitivity to those changes, the environmental Vulnerability Index (EVI), developed by the South Pacific Applied Geosciences Commission (SOPAC), as a global composite index that quantifies the vulnerability of an area’s environment, was applied to the basin. The results revealed that the major vulnerability issues are from anthropogenic sources, country-characteristics and climate changes. The most important climate risk factor for the basin is drought. The overall risk factor in the basin is higher than the means of resistance, making it moderately sensitive to changes.

Keywords: Anthropogenic; Bandama; Basin; Environmental; Indices; Vulnerability.

Journal: Studia Antiqua et Archaeologica  [ PDF ]                  pp. 370

Project review:
The Ethnoarchaeology of the Salt Springs and Salt Mountains from the Extra-Carpathian Areas of Romania
[ PDF ]                  pp. 371-372

C. Purice, Gh. Romanescu, G. Romanescu

The Protection of the Geomorphosites within the Macin Mountains National Park (Romania) and their Touristic Importance

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 373-383
The Macin Mountains represent the oldest orogen unit on Romanian territory and one of the oldest in Europe. The geomorphosites of Culmea Pricopanului are the most spectacular and they “hide” a great touristic potential. The poor infrastructure makes the number of tourists in the region extremely low. Nevertheless, there is a didactic, specialised tourism. The geomorphosites of the Macin Mountains are conserved very well, because they are situated within the National Park. Unfotunately, the new quarries opened in the vicinity and their potential extension may affect the touristic potential of the area.

Keywords: Conservation; geomorphology; environment; touristic potential; protection

Available online on 09.09.2013     


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Issue Cover

Volume 4, Issue 4, December 2013

Research Articles:

S. Ristic, S. Polic-Radovanovic

IR Thermography in Moisture and Earthquake Damage Detection Performed in the Žica Monastery, Serbia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 386-396
This paper presents the results of the IR thermographic diagnostics of the seismic damage inflicted upon the Žica Monastery after the earthquake on 3rd November 2010. The Žica Monastery founded in 13th century is located in central Serbia. The moisture content in the structure was detected too. The obtained results document the current state of the buildings and, at the same time, confirm the advantages of IR thermography as a method in the diagnosis of earthquake cracks, useful for the seismic retrofit study. The obtained results enable the identification of the structure parts where more in-depth investigations need to be concentrated. The procedures and activities for curative conservation and protection of the Žica Monastery should include the thermographic test results. The results and the conclusions obtained in this case study could be used as example for further extensive studies of historical and cultural heritage buildings.

Keywords: thermography; cultural heritage; monastery; moisture; structural damage; earthquake.

N.A. Bader, W.K. Al-Gharib

Assessment of Deterioration and Conservation of a Polychrome Wooden Coffin, from Al-Arish Museum, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 397-412
This paper describes the deterioration and preservation of an Ancient Egyptian polychrome wooden coffin, dating back to the 1st century. Common deterioration problems are the wood splitting and cracking, detachment of ground and paint layers, fungal damage, dirt adhesion and staining. The project entails securing the severely damaged wood, preparation of lime layer, the painting layer, and paint layer to a substrate, by consolidation, cleaning, dust removal and treatment of the degraded wood. Qualitative analysis of samples selected from the coffin, was reported. Studies that includes the identification of wood species, ground layer, paint layer, binding medium and microbiological identification were made. Several analytical methods were employed in the identification processes such as the Light optical microscopy (LOM), Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (SEM-EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The obtained data were used to evaluate the deterioration status of the coffin and to establish suitable treatment methods.

Keywords: polychrome wooden coffin; biodeterioration; wood identification; treatment.

S.S. Darwish

Evaluation of the Effectiveness of some Consolidants Used for the Treatment of the XIXth Century Egyptian Cemetery Wall Painting

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 413-422
A large number of wall paintings suffer from many aspects of deterioration such as cracking, surface powdering, losing painted layers and forming colored stains due to biological or salt effects. Surface consolidation, directed to achieve cohesion and stability, is based on the use of materials with aggregating properties. Two products (Paraloid B-72 and SILRES® BS OH 100) were selected to evaluate their efficiency for consolidation treatments of painted surfaces of Hawsh al- Basha courtyard dating back to Mohammed Ali's family period (1805-1952) in Egypt. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy with Attenuation Total Reflection (FTIR-ATR) and Colorimetric measurements were used in performing the study. The results showed that the stability of the consolidants depended on the chemical composition of the pigments.

Keywords: wall painting; Hawsh al- Basha; consolidation; SEM, FTIR-ATR; colorimetric measurements.

N.K. Fahim, Y.E.S. Ziddan, S.A.A. Rahim

Practical Study on Treatment of Selected Decorated Tapestry in Applied Art Museum, Cairo

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 423-432
The paper presents the method of treatment of tapestry textile, that considers the most common technique used in decoration of textile since the new kingdom until now, it is called Kabaty. The paper deals with selected piece of museum of Applied Art Faculty in Cairo. Treatment procedure was performed by several stages; firstly, Dating by comparing the decoration technique, the type of material and the decorative motifs existed in the object with another one known its date. Then samples taken from object were examined by optical microscope, scanning electron microscope to identify type of fibers and surface morphology .x-ray analysis was performed to identify mordant and dust. FTIR analysis to identify dyes in dyed samples. Then, the paper deal with the treatment of tapestry pieces by testing sensitive of fiber to water, mechanical cleaning and chemical cleaning to remove stain, washing stage using distilled water, and finally consolidation the object by fixed on support of natural linen which was stretched on wooden frame treated by anti-fungal substance .archeological and technical studies was discussed besides photographs.

Keywords: tapestry; anti-fungi; analytical technique; treatment

A. Hamed

Re-Excavation of Seti First Tomb, Kv17, Luxor, Egypt

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 433-446
This article is discussing technical challenges within engineering works made during re-excavation of the 174 m long tunnel which was cut into bedrock of desert shale known as 'Esna shale'. Recent historical events, during the last decade, explained much of the tunnel deformations and dirt filling inside tunnel space "Debris", caused by multiple water runoff attack to king's valley. The author is also discussing the challenging work under severe financial regime; using non conventional solutions adopted with extraordinary actions in using junk yard equipment. Seti I tomb, is considered as the deepest opening in the valley, not mentioning the risk in re-excavation the tomb, harsh atmospheric conditions inside the tunnel, measured and monitored by author, needed a serious ventilation system to serve workers during removal of dirt. Through that, an interesting mathematical relation between atmospheric variables has been emphasized. Design of steel supporting system serving an inclined deep tunnel with irregular circumference, under strict condition of reversibility, has been performed as a remarkable topic, to solve and apply in such archaeological site. Finally, the article is considered as a scientific pattern for application of geo-engineering in conservation of underground archaeological sites.

Keywords: Tomb; Seti first; KV 17, conservation, numerical modeling, tunnel.

M. El-Gohary

Physical Deterioration of Egyptian Limestone Affected by Saline Water

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 447-458
This study is the second in a series of experiments that describe the chemical, physical and thermal properties of archaeological limestone affected by salt and saline water in Egypt. This research aims to study the aggressive physical effects of different types of salts dominated in saline water and their different mechanisms on the acceleration of weathering processes that affect Egyptian limestone. It presents a multidisciplinary approach to characterize, at both micro/macro scales, the behavior of a limestone widely used as a construction material in most of Egyptian monuments when interacting with some types of salt solutions of various concentrations. A systematic optical, morphological, physical and mechanical analysis of the fresh and weathered stone samples were used to evaluate different characteristics through using scientific some techniques such as optical microscope (OP) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). In addition to the using of some special computer programs that were used to define different physical and mechanical properties such as weight changes, bulk density, total porosity, water uptake, water content, thermal dilatation and abrasion resistant. The results proved that all investigated samples were gradually affected by the types of salinity paths and salt concentrations. These results will serve as a database for the future comparison of long term behavior of stones before and after the planned conservation of the entire area. So, it is pertinent to device some scientific methods and interventions to reduce all factors of salt effects and removing their harmful aspects from historic fabric of the archaeological buildings through some scientific recommendations

Keywords: Saline water; Physical properties; Thermal dilatation; Abrasion resistant

U.R. Pudjowati, B. Yanuwiadi, R. Sulistiono, S. Suyadi

Effect of Vegetation Composition on Noise and Temperature in Waru - Sidoarjo Highway, East Java, Indonesia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 459-466
The city development and population density need to be followed by infrastructure and facilities such as residential facilities, education, and transportation industries. Infrastructure development has a tendency to minimize the green open space. This region decreased could result in noise and temperature rise due to the increasing amount of residential development, the number of motor vehicles and industrial and transportation using fossil fuels in its production process. It could be mitigated by planting along highway. Naturally, the vegetation could reduce noise and temperature. Vegetation Composition existing along the highway Waru-Sidoarjo are tree-shrub-bushes composition, no vegetation at all composition, just tree composition and tree-shrubs composition. This study aimed to compare the percentage of noise reduction and a decrease in the temperature of each vegetation composition existing along the highway. The results of this study showed that vegetation composition which is consist of trees, shrubs and bushes was more effective to reduce the noise (up to 12.25%) and to decrease temperatures (up to 8.18%). It's recommended for Waru-Sidoarjo highway management to plant the tree-shrub-bushes vegetation composition for reduced the noise that occurs along the highway and helped temperature decrease, for the convenience of road users.

Keywords: vegetation composition; noise reduction; temperature decrease.

S.M. Sultan, L. V. Subba Rao

Germplasm Collection from Last Remnants of Rice Landrace Genetic Diversity in High Altitude Areas of Kashmir Himalayas

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 467-476
The aim of the present study was to know about past and present cultivation and status of rice landraces in Kashmir province of Indian Himalayan state of Jammu and Kashmir. Tremendous genetic diversity has existed in past in paddy fields throughout Kashmir especially in remote high altitude areas and more than 4 dozen named landraces have been recorded in the literature. Elderly farmers in their sixties and beyond still fondly remember these landraces and often recall quality attributes in many of these genetic resources. Most of the landraces have now disappeared from the local production system and only few are presently being cultivated and that too in a very small area. The reasons as to why farmers lost interest in these genetic resources and why few landraces are still popular in farmer fields have been discussed. Our study has revealed that variability in paddy fields has now been drastically reduced to few high altitude areas where also it is seriously endangered. We argue that collection of well adapted traditional varieties from these 'last remnants of rice genetic diversity' in Kashmir is an important task especially under prevailing uncertain social and climatic conditions to ensure a sustainable environment. 32 germplasm accessions of some landraces have been collected during our survey in these areas. These have been deposited in National Seed Gene Bank at NBPGR, New Delhi for conservation and characterization.

Keywords: genetic diversity; germplasm collection; Kashmir; landraces; rice.

S. Behera, B. Tripathy, K. Sivakumar, B.C. Choudhury, C. Kar

Nesting Habitat Suitability for Olive Ridley Turtles (Lepidochelys Olivacea) at the Gahirmatha Rookery, Odisha Coast of India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 477-484
The changes in the beach dynamics at Gahirmatha sea turtle rookery along Odisha coast of India have forced the olive ridley turtles to nests in a non-conducive environment. In the recent past, non-availability of nesting beach due to erosion was hypothesized to be one of the major reasons for non-occurrence of arribada at Gahirmatha. This paper reviews the current status of nesting habitat for olive ridley turtles at Gahirmatha and suggests onshore and offshore developmental activities close to Gahirmatha rookery should be monitored efficiently so that future arribada at this rookery should not be troubled due to habitat destruction.

Keywords: Olive ridley; Nesting beach; Gahirmatha; Arribada; Threat; Odisha; India

A. Joshi, H.B. Vasistha, M. Dabral

Vegetation Characterization and Litter Production on the Rehabilitated Mined Area of Mussoorie Hills, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 485-492
The floristic diversity of four different age series in rehabilitated mined area which represents the degraded ecosystem was examined. Phytosociological analysis revealed that the highest number of plant species (38 nos.) including tree, shrubs, herbs and grasses were found in eight years old (Site II) rehabilitated site followed by eleven years old (Site I )and six years old (Site 3) (33 nos.) and least was in four years old Site IV (29 nos.). Maximum total basal area was represented by site I followed by site II, site III and site IV. With reference to annual litter production it was highest in Site I (5286 Kg/ha) followed by Site III (1193.2 Kg/ha), Site II (804.0 kg/ha) and least in Site IV (262.0 Kg/ha).

Keywords: Phytosociological analysis; Vegetational composition; litter production; mined area.

N. Lohani, L.M. Tewari, G.C. Joshi, R. Kumar, K. Kishor, B.M. Upreti

Population Assessment and Threat Categorization of Endangered Medicinal Orchid Malaxis Acuminata D. Don. from North-West Himalaya

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 493-502
Studies on population assessment and threat categorization in selected populations of Malaxis acuminate D. Don., a rare, terrestrial, endangered medicinal orchid of Himalayan region and an important "Astverga" plant were undertaken. Status was determined on site-to-site basis as well as for entire Kumaun region. Based on species occurrence in selected areas, the species were identified as critically endangered to endangered in different sites studied. The results also revealed that natural distribution of the species was narrowing down due to habitat destruction and over exploitation. Immediate remedial measures are needed for the conservation of natural sites to ensure sustainable mode of utilization.

Keywords: Malaxis acuminata D. Don.; orchid; population assessment; endangered.


A. Kumar, B. Lal, S. Rajkumar, A. Chawla, R. Kaushal

Landscape Mapping and Tree Diversity Assessment of Pangi Valley: A Remote Tribal Area of Himachal Pradesh in Western Himalaya, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 503-508
Pangi valley in Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh is one of the remote tribal areas in Indian western Himalaya. The plant resources in its landscapes are flourishing under least anthropogenic conditions. For social upliftment of the tribals in this area, a number of developmental activities are being implemented by the government. A study was conducted for mapping of its landuse/landcover using satellite remote sensing to identify major forested landscapes in the region. It was followed by a detailed random stratified sampling of the forested landscapes for phytosociological estimation of its tree species. The 21.97 % of study area was estimated under forests followed by Scrublands and Grassy meadows (18.24 %). Majority of area (54.05 %) was Snow and Scree slopes. Among the forests, maximum area was occupied by Mixed Broad Leaved Forest LSE type (36.08%) followed by Cedrus deodara (26.94%) and Betula utilis (18.07%) forest LSE types. These species, owing to immense medicinal properties and value for their economic utilization, feature in threatened and endangered category list of plants. It is, therefore, recommended that the developmental activities may be implemented in scientific way, which may not pose threat to bioresources in this region.

Keywords: Remote sensing; GIS; quadrat; frequency; density; conservation

Available online on 05.10.2013     

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