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Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2017

Research articles

P. Jin, F. Ruan, X. Yang, K. Liu, H. Zou, L. Ye, L. Gu

Assessment of Cleaning the Corrosion Layer of Plated Bronzes with a Complex Gel of Polyvinyl Alcohol and Carbomer

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 3-14

When unearthed from soil, many plated bronzes were covered with a thick layer of patina that hid their original shiny lustre. A sandwich structure is observed in their cross-section including superficial patina, plated layer and inner patina. In this paper, a hydrogel cleaner, composed of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and Carbomer, and added by formic acid and cysteine, is introduced as de-rusting agent which can not only remove the patina from the surface of plated bronzes successfully, but also keep their original lustre.

Keywords: Plated bronze; Patina; De-rusting; Gel cleaning; PVA; Carbomer.

WA. Mohamed, N.M. Mohamed

Testing Coatings for Enameled Metal Artifacts

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 15-24
This research aims to test the efficiency of coating materials to protect Champlevé enameled silver and copper artifacts. Enameled copper and silver coupons were prepared to replicate original artifacts. Paraloid B-72 and microcrystalline wax were applied in different procedures onto test coupons then exposed to elevated relative humidity to perform an accelerated ageing condition. The exposed coupons were investigated to measure the color change and the weight gain occurred to evaluate the coatings performance and to compare the impact of changing application procedures of coatings on the protection effectiveness of enameled metals against corrosion and deterioration. The results indicated that the best coating procedure that met both aesthetic and corrosion protection was afforded by a monolayer of 3% Paraloid B-72.

Keywords: Metal artifacts; Champlevé enamel; Protective coatings; Paraloid B-72.

A. Bailao, F. Henriques, M.C. Cabral, A. Goncalves

Documentation in Conservation for the Retouching Process of a Painting by Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 25-34
In the documentation in conservation context, there is an increasing demand for precise and accurate data and also for full three dimensional records of the cultural heritage. This paper presents the study case of a painting by Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso before, during and after the retouching treatment. The work focuses on the use of open source systems, such as GIS and photogrammetry software, in order to produce accurate maps of object losses and realistic virtual 3D models enabling the study of artworks with a minimum budget and a low cost infrastructure.

Keywords: Documentation; photogrammetry; image-based modeling (IBM), Amadeo de Sousa-Cardoso, heritage conservation; retouching.

I. Carlan, B. Dovleac

3D Modelling of Arutela Roman Castrum Using Close-range Photogrammetry

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 35-42
State of the art of close-range photogrammetry reveals new methods for creation of 3D models for heritage and archaeological objects and sites. Effective and competent methodologies have been developed for surveying and modeling archaeological sites and thus provide high quality and accurate realistic textured models for better research, preservation, education and monitoring projects. A specific methodology was applied to produce a scale 3D model of “Arutela (Căciulata) Roman Castrum” in a digital environment. A complex product is created, with complemental geometry and texture. The accurate geometry and appearance details (size, shape, position and texture) can be used for a proper documentation, preservation and restauration applications.

Keywords: Close-range photogrammetry; Digital photographs; 3D modeling; Archaeological site; Heritage conservation.

G. Goli, L. Cocchi, M. Togni, M. Fioravanti

Test of a Device for the Active Control of Environmental Humidity in Museum Display Cases

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 43-50
A series of laboratory tests were conducted on a commercial device for active relative humidity control of display cases to assess the ability of the machine to control a medium format (3.45 m3) museum display case. An extreme museum environment with large relative humidity and temperature fluctuations was simulated and different air leakage rates were produced (0.1 - 0.5 - 6 AER/day) on a purposely-made display case. The machine was shown to work very effectively for both in humidify and dehumidifying for conditions corresponding to very well sealed ( AER 0.1) to medium sealed (AER 0.5). On a very poorly sealed enclosure (AER 6), the external environmental fluctuation resulted in internal fluctuations but the machine very effectively mitigated these effects. The use of the machine in positive pressure mode and (optional) recirculating mode was shown to be irrelevant to the ability of the machine to control the relative humidity. Positive pressure mode provides a constant flow to remove VOC's from the showcase (which could contribute to artefact degradation.), and to prevent ingress of ambient pollutants.

Keywords: Showcase; Climate; Active conditioning; Microclimate; Relative humidity

E.M. Osman, Y.E. Zidan, N.K. Fahim

The Determination of Conservation State of Archaeological Moroccan Kilim by Physical Analytical Methods

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 51-58
This paper present the strategies for identification the raw material and dyes used in old textile and deterioration and degradation statement of archaeological dyed samples by using physical techniques such as light microscopy, scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction. Samples were taken from morocco kilim which was suffering from several types of damage, as a result of natural ageing appearing in brittle fibres, fading in dyes in many parts of it and missing in a lot of parts in many places. Light microscope and SEM were used to identify the kind of fibres, their condition and surface morphology. XRD was used to identify mordant, impurities and dust. Various dyed samples were taken from different eight sites selected from the worst places in statement of damage in the kilim, and examined by optical microscope, XRD and Scanning electron microscope. Main results revealed that the raw material was wool with its significant morphology appearance. XRD analysis revealed that iron sulphate, Alum, copper sulphate, tin was the main mordant existed in. On one hand, these mordants were considered the most common mordants used in archaeological textiles, on the other hand it should be one of the deterioration and degradation factors for old samples. SEM showed the weakness, brittleness and friction existed in dyed wool samples, the reasons of deterioration/degradation was discussed. Finally, the previous analysis provided a suitable plan for treatment the archaeological dyed textile, as it could be helpful for conservator to have a good decision of the procedure and material should be used in the conservation process based on the previously obtained data analysis.

Keywords: Deterioration and degradation; Physical techniques; Dyed wool;
Archaeological textile; Mordant

A.C. Inigo, J. García-Talegon, S. Vicente-Tavera, S. Casado-Marín, S. Martin-Gonzalez

Multivariate Analyses of Soluble Salts Responsible for Pathologies in Granites of the Roman Aqueduct of Segovia, Spain

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 59-66

The aim of this work is to characterize the main pathologies caused by salt crystallization in granitic monuments (crusts, salt efflorescence, disaggregation and disaggregation with salt efflorescence). Water soluble ions were determined quantitatively. Using the Canonical Biplot multivariate method it was determined that: a) there is a relationship between the content of water soluble salts and the different identified pathologies; b) sulphate and NO3-, Cl-, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ ions are the major components of salt efflorescence; c) carbonate is a major component of the crust; and d) the disaggregated granites, with or without salt efflorescence, have a low proportion of soluble salts but no predominant ion composition.

Keywords: Granite; Pathologies; Salt crystallization; Crust; Efflorescence; Disaggregation; Canonical Biplot

N. Buisson, C. Laffont, A. Pequignot, C. Badoual, P. Faulcon, C. Nich

New Insights into the Heart of Voltaire Using a Multidisciplinary Approach

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 67-80
A rare occasion to investigate the conservation mode of the heart of the philosopher Voltaire (1694–1778) presented itself following an incident with his statue at the National Library of France which enclosed the organ. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to propose and implement an improved reconditioning method for the organ. The study generated a better knowledge of the fabrication technique of funeral metallic boxes as well as a better understanding of the degradation process of both the organ and the box. The heart and its conditioning, as well as the volatile products (VOCs) released by the heart were analysed with nondestructive methods. X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy associated with X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX) were used for the identification of the metal, the preparation and the gilding of the metal box. The heart-shaped metal box is made of lead with tin welds. The box received a double layer white lead preparation. The binding of the preparation is probably of proteinic nature. Gold leaf had been deposited on a gilding bole made of a mixture of red ochre and minium, enhancing the preciousness of this particular artefact. Identification of VOCs released from the heart done by SPME fibres followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis confirmed the origin of the strong smell, essentially acetic acid. From the inside of the heart-shaped metal box, emission of VOCs suggest that the organ may have been embalmed in a liquid containing alcohol (spirit of wine), resins, natural extracts or essences from cedar or lavender. Histological analysis of tissue samples showed the presence of striated muscle fibres. These results helped to determine the optimal reconditioning of the heart. It has been decided to keep the organ inside its metal box in a stabilized environment with static anoxia, in order to preserve the heart for future generations while protecting the tissues against oxygen degradation for further investigations.

Keywords: Heart of Voltaire; Gilding; Metal analysis; SEM-EDX; XRF; VOCs; CT scanner; Histology

P. Spiridon, I. Sandu, L. Stratulat

The Conscious Deterioration and Degradation of the Cultural Heritage

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 81-88
The present paper aims to present the different forms of vandalism resulted from the human activities and manifestations that harm the environment and/or put in danger the cultural heritage assets. For this purpose, we selected a number of relevant cases in the field in order to identify the real reasons behind these actions that have often mutilated the artifacts. The results revealed that anthropic factors are just as dangerous as the natural factors for the cultural heritage, and that there are many different manifestations, controllable or uncontrollable, based on intention, imprudence or omission.

Keywords: cultural heritage; conservation; vandalism; destruction; graffiti; demolition

K. Kostrakiewicz-Gieralt

The Impact of Habitat Conditions on the Performance of Generative Ramet Clusters of High Medicinal Value, Rare Species Betonica Officinalis l.

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 89-104
Observations were carried out in the years 2014-2015 in moor grass meadows, old fields, willow thickets and macroforbs. In the successive study sites, the height of the standing vegetation and soil moisture gradually increased, whilst the light availability decreased. Stable in consecutive seasons, the total number of ramets per generative ramet cluster achieved the lowest values in willow thickets due to mechanical suppression of vegetative growth by the robust underground organs of neighbouring plants. Constant during the study period, the share of generative stems decreased in successive study sites, while the percentage of leaf rosettes showed an inverted tendency. The increase of height of generative stems and number of flowers per inflorescence in consecutive Patches, as well as the augmentation of length of flowers in time and space, might trigger an improvement of generative reproduction in a crowded environment. The increase of the number of nodes and dimensions of cauline leaf blades in successive Patches and the augmentation of the number and dimensions of rosette leaves in the time and space might contribute to greater efficacy of light capture in growing shading. Summarizing the plasticity of traits might assure the spread of generative ramet clusters in open habitats, as well as their persistence in crowded sites.

Keywords: Cauline leaves; Flowers; Generative stem; Rosette; Spatial and temporal variability

N. Sarataphan, W. Narongwanichgarn, S. Maneerat

Phylogenetic Analysis of a Thai Wild Water Buffalo (bubalus arnee) Through Mitochondrial Control Region

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 105-112
Asiatic wild water buffaloes (Bubalus arnee) are categorized as endangered species on the IUCN Red List, and distribute only in Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Bhutan, Cambodia and Thailand. The objective of this study was to verify the relationship between the maternal lineages of a Thai wild water buffalo in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary and other domesticated water buffaloes. Mitochondrial control region sequence were analysed in comparison with published sequences of domestic water buffaloes. The DNA fragment size of 396 bp indicated 55 polymorphic nucleotide sites with 50 transitions and 5 transversions. The maximum likelihood tree revealed that the Thai wild water buffalo located in lineage A of one major swamp water buffalo clade. The Thai wild water buffalo genetic material has more similarities with that of the swamp water buffalo from lineage A, than that from lineage B. Median-joining phylogenetic network and mutation position showed that the evolution of the Thai wild water buffalo happened prior to domesticate swamp water buffaloes. Analysis of mitochondrial control region sequence of the wild water buffalo showed independent maternal origin, separating from other domesticated swamp water buffaloes.

Keywords: Thai wild water buffalo; control region; mitochondrial DNA

D.R. Shah, D.J. Gavali

Floral Diversity in Vadodara Gardens, Gujarat, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 113-120
Garden biodiversity is an integral part of the urban ecosystem and play an important role in improving green infrastructure and aid in climate change adaptations. Little research is available on the floral diversity of the parks and gardens. The present study is an attempt to document the floral diversity of 77 gardens in Vadodara city and elucidate trends based on the size of the gardens. Study indicated presence of 217 species belonging to 72 families from the gardens of Vadodara city. The floristic data revealed that around 53% of the species represented indigenous species and 47% belonged to exotic species. Paper concluded that diversity is more in the small gardens as compared to large sized garden, where plantation of few species in undertaken. Species suitable to the semi-arid climate with low water requirement dominated the gardens indicative of better management practices and adapt to climate change.

Keywords: Garden; Urban ecosystem; Exotic species; Plant Diversity, Gujarat;

M. Nuruzzaman, A. Al-Mamun, M.N. Salleh

Challenges in the Rehabilitation of the Pusu River

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 121-130
River rehabilitation efforts in the world are increasing to conserve the ecosystem. These efforts, generally, face challenges from various sources. Major constraints which can turn such a program into a failed project have been discussed explicitly in the first portion of this paper. In the latter portion of the paper, focus has been given on the problems of rehabilitation of the Pusu Rive at Gombak District in Malaysia. Water sampling from the river and its catchment has been done in different periods and events. Pollution loadings into the river have been calculated for different parameters. Based on analysis, sand mining activities, point source pollution and catchment landuse have been identified as the major impediments of Pusu River rehabilitation. These problems must be addressed before the rehabilitation of the river to ensure the rehabilitation of the river is successful.

Keywords: River rehabilitation; Pollution; Targets; Impediments; Failure reasons.

M.Z. Haque, M.I.H. Reza

Salinity Intrusion Affecting the Ecological Integrity of Sundarbans Mangrove Forests, Bangladesh

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 131-144
The raising of the sea causes salinity intrusion into fresh water zones such as river, lake, floodplain and other lowlands. Salinity intrusion in the Mangrove forest is a continuous process. However, due to the increasing salinity ecological integrity of the Sundarbans have been largely affected. The compositional and functional aspects of flora and fauna have been changing at a great deal. The objective of this study is to delineate the changes of the structure and composition of the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest due to excess salinity intrusion and how salinity affect its biodiversity, wildlife habitat and other ecosystem components. This study reviewed related literature gathered through an extensive survey of various websites and the secondary data obtained from various departments with necessary modifications. The land use maps collected from the Bangladesh Forest Department were interpreted to achieve an elaborate classification of forest type and its gradual change with increasing salinity. Observations at the periphery of Sundarbans explore the effect of salinity on the population, livestock, aquatic species and the paddy fields. We used ArcGIS 9.3 to visualize the salinity prone zones, the boundary of administrative zones and the forest type to identify the causes and intensity of the issues, and to suggest the appropriate mitigating measures. The study states that the salinity intrusion causes the reduction of fresh water availability in Sundarbans. As a result, fresh water loving species are replaced by the species of the saline zone. Most of the areas are found with the small and bushy typed species that reduce biomass in comparison with their standard volume. The study reveals the effects of salinity intrusion in the Sundarbans Mangrove Forest which may affect its compositional, structural and functional integrity. Long-term and short-term policies are recommended to resolve the issues.

Keywords: Salinity intrusion; Ecological integrity; Mangrove ecosystem; Biodiversity; Wildlife habitat; Structure and composition of mangrove species

P.C. Sahu

Groundwater Resource Conservation and Augmentation in Hard Rock Terrain: An Integrated Geological and Geo-Spatial Approach

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 145-156
Digapahandi block of Ganjam district is a chronically drought prone and economically backward area of Odisha. The agricultural lands which are mostly rain fed bear the adverse effects of drought resulting in loss of crops. Surface water irrigation is very limited and not dependable due to vagaries of monsoon rainfall. Drinking water problem is very acute during summer as most of the wells go dry. Keeping this fact in view the research was aimed at locating site specific artificial recharge structures for groundwater resource conservation and augmentation in hard rock terrain. Satellite IRS- IC LISS III data have been used to prepare various thematic maps. The study reveals that the major litho units are granitic gneisses, khondalite and charnockite suite of rocks. The geomorphic units are pediplain, flood plain, denudational and structural hills .Four sets of lineaments have been identified. The trends of lineaments are broadly NE-SW, NNE-SSW, NW-SE and N-S. The interpreted data is cross-checked and confirmed during field visits. Based on the hydro-geological set-up, suitable site- specific artificial recharge structures such as percolation tank, check dam, contour bund, gully plug and vegetative measures have been suggested to maintain the balance between the recharge and draft.

Keywords: Conservation; Artificial recharge; Hydro-geomorphology; Lineament; Drought prone

M. Asyari, Udiansyah, Bagyoyanuwiadi, M.L. Rayes

Management Policy Formulation of Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve Related with Mangrove Forest Degradation at South Borneo, Indonesia

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 157-164
Indonesia is an archipelago that has the largest mangrove forest in the world. Strategic role of forest resources encourages the need for sustainable management of mangrove forests. This study aims to formulate strategies for management of mangrove forests related with degradation of land use in Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve area at Kotabaru Regency, using Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP) approachment. The results of study explained that the hierarchical structure I which consists of the supporting factors for socio-ecological, sosio-cultural and sosio-economic aspects got score 1,809; 1,682 and 0,239 respectively. It shows that the supporting factor which based on socio-ecological aspects, believe to be the most dominant factor for sustainable and sustainability Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve mangrove forest management policy formulation. Based on the hierarchical structure II, conclude that the socio-economic indicators, ie: utilization based to the absence of access to land ownership, capitalization of the business and source of livelihood got score 1,717; 0,781 and 0,874 respectively. On the socio-ecological indicators can be concluded that the understanding of mangrove forest conservation got score 1,027, environmental services is 0,753 and the ecological functions of mangrove forest is 0,735. Socio-cultural indicators which become the foundation supporting the utilization of sustainable and sustainability Teluk Kelumpang Natural Reserve mangrove forest, namely: the utilization for cultural function / local wisdom / pond got score 1,035. The utilization for entertainment functions / recreation / beach tourism got a score 0,941 and the utilization for educational function got score 0,734.

Keywords: Mangrove forests; Analysis Hierarchy Process; Teluk Kelumpang.

Publication date: 15.03.2017

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Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2017

Research articles

L. Bianco

Limestone Replacement in Restoration: The Case of the Church of Santa Maria (Birkirkara, Malta)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF ]                  pp. 167-176

The Church of Santa Maria is one of the finest examples of seventeenth century heritage monuments in the Maltese archipelago. The provenance of limestone used in the restoration works is different from the original heritage fabric. It is obtained from a quarry located 5.2 km south of the church whilst the original source of the limestone, according to tradition, is from an area 2.2 km north of the monument. This petrological study concludes that although both extracted from the same geological formation, there are physical, textural, geochemical and mineralogical differences even over a distance of 7.4 km. The limestone used in replacement is more resistance in terms of compressive strength and is less porous. Although having same principal non-carbonate oxides, the quantitative variations in the geochemistry and the mineralogy are indicative of qualitative differences between the two lithotypes; they are diagnostic indicators of the provenance of the limestone.

Keywords: Limestone; Globigerina Limestone; Restoration; Compatibility, Evaluation, Baroque; Malta; Birkirkara.

G. Goli, B. Marcon, L. Busoni, B. Carlson, A. Cavalli, A. Giordano, P. Mazzanti, P. Montanari, M. Togni, M. Fioravanti

Antique Violins: Effect of the Player on the Moisture Content

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 177-186
In this research the inside and outside relative humidity and temperature of the violin Guarneri “del Gesù” violin (1743) known as the “Cannone”, were monitored during nine concerts. The environmental variations during concerts were analysed showing how the internal relative humidity tends to an average value between the conservation conditions and the external conditions. The violin internal temperature is highly influenced by the contact between the player and the violin resulting in a typical saw-tooth graph during a concert because of the discontinuous contact with the player’s body. The violin internal relative humidity presents a typical drop when the player stops playing. The mass variations consequent to the concerts were also recorded and analysed. This analysis has shown how the difference between the conservation average relative humidity and the violin external average relative humidity during a concert are good predictors of the mass variation. Relative humidity and Equilibrium Moisture Content have shown the same ability to predict the mass loss showing how the temperature (for the variation measured in this research) is not an important factor. The analysis suggests that the presence of the violinist does not play a relevant role on the violin mass transfer during a concert.

Keywords: Violinist; Moisture content; Concert; Mass; Guarneri; Violin; Hygrothermal transfers.

A. Al-Bawab, R. Abd-Allah, H. Al-Hamati, F. Odeh, A. Bozeya

Consolidation of Archaeological Basalt Stone: A new Experimental Protocol by using Different Dispersions Formulation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 187-198
In this study, a new protocol of consolidation for basaltic stone artifacts was investigated. A considerable series of samples of deteriorated basaltic artifacts were collected from the Rujm el-kursi archaeological site in Jordan. Colloidal dispersion was prepared to act as a consolidant solution for the selected basalt artifacts. The phase behavior for a system composed of Water /Calcium hydroxide/ Isopropyl alcohol/ Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS)/ Paraloid B72 was investigated. The resulting ternary phase diagram was used to prepare the optimum formulation for consolidant dispersion. A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the prepared dispersion. Experiments included capillarity water absorption, penetration of water, water drop absorption, salts movement and accelerated artificial aging test. Treated samples were investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescent (XRF) and polarizing microscope (PM). The results of laboratory experiments showed that the prepared colloidal dispersion expressed acceptable efficient in strengthening the internal structure of stone. Obvious changes in the mineralogical composition of treated samples were not recorded. The treated basalt stone appeared to be water repellent; can decrease the penetration of water, which in turn led to the decrease of salts crystallization process inside basalt stone pores. The prepared dispersion appeared to be stable against accelerated aging factors and effective in decreasing the basalt stone decaying process.

Keywords: Basalt stone; Consolidant dispersion; Ternary phase diagram; Paraloid B72; SEM; XRF.

G. Abeer

The Use of Mineralogical Data in Interpretation of Brass Alloy Brittleness Through a Metallic Object from Museum of Faculty of Applied Arts in Cairo

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 199-206
Metallic objects undergo physical-chemical transformations involving complex mechanisms, which change both their surface and their metallic core. This paper presents the study of a Brass head of a princess from the museum of Faculty of Applied Arts in Cairo, in which we used Optical microscopy (OM), Metallographic microscope, Scanning electron microscopy, coupled with energy dispersive X- ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), and X- ray diffraction. The results revealed the excess of the chloride ion in corrosion products, transforming the bulk in stratified sponge structure. Compounds of primary and secondary patina were found as color stains on the surface. The alloy components (Cu, Sn, Zn) and contamination components, allowed us to prove the influence of environmental factors in the alteration processes of Brass alloy artifacts causing brittleness in the mineralogical composition. Finally, the results obtained helps in choosing the best methods of treatment and conservation.

Keywords: Corrosion mechanism; Brass alloys Brittleness; OM; SEM-EDX; XRD.

J. Abbasi, K. Samanian, M. Afsharpor

Evaluation of Polyvinyl Butyral and Zinc Oxide Nano-Composite for Consolidation of Historical Woods

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 207-214
Consolidation of degraded wooden artifacts by natural and synthetic polymers in a solution is an important step in the treatment process of wooden heritage. This treatment is basically depended on the penetration, distribution and retention of the consolidate in the wood structure. One of the most frequently used consolidate for wooden material is polyvinyl butyral (PVB). Present research aims to evaluate polyvinyl butyral and zinc oxide as consolidate of old dried wooden material and investigate the efficiency of zinc oxide as a supplement on the distribution, penetration and retention of the consolidate in the “patanus orientalts-L” wood samples. Samples used for this research all belong to Qajar period. They were obtained from the same artifact and had the same, relatively sound condition. Cross sections were cut and obtained in a chamber with controlled temperature and relative humidity and weighted afterwards. Zinc oxide was used in 0.5, 1 and 1.5 concentrations in the polyvinyl butyral matrix of 10 % concentration. Efficiency of consolidate was evaluated by weighting, distribution and penetration in the wood and were examined by Fe-SEM and EDX. Concentrations 0.5 and 1 % of Nano- zinc oxide increased the penetration of consolidate and all three concentrations of zinc oxide increased the retention. Penetration of Nano- zinc oxide in the lumen as well as uniform distribution of it in the wood structure was also observed by microscopic observation.

Keywords: Wood; Consolidate; Nano-composite; Polyvinyl butyral; Zinc oxide

M. Paryad, M. Janpourtaher, M. Barkeshli

Technology, Pathology and Scientific Analysis of a Piece of Safavid Curtain in the Moghadam Museum

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 215-226
The curtain under study with the inventory number 3421 is one of the exquisite brocade fabrics belonging to Iran’s Safavid period (dated 16th century) housed in Moghadam museum. This research aims to identify the stitching techniques, texture, pigments and deterioration factors, and to examine the different causes of damages through historical and artistic review. Data and information is collected through library and field studies, laboratory tests, instrument approaches, analysis, survey and direct observation of the object. Fibers and pigments were detected using polarizing light microscopy, chemical tests and affordable analysis devices. Results showed the fibers as silk, and Indigo and Madder were identified as main colorants used in dying the fibers. Also according to the SEM results, metal thread was identified as pure silver, which is covered with a layer of black sulfur. According to postural warp and weft and braid string, weaving technique was a combination method with split-woven technique. A series of internal and external destructive factors as well as improper past repairs caused several damages to the fabric. Based on the current condition of the object and the damages it contains, this research aims to identify the deterioration factors and assess them.

Keywords: Technology; Pathology; Safavid textile; Brocade fabric; Moghadam Museum

J.F. Bejarano Bella, A. Torres Rodríguez

50 Years of Preservation in Doñana (Spain). Public Involvement as the Present Challenge and Management Strategy to Face Future Challenges (Case Study)

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 227-236

In social sciences, scientific approaches to nature preservation in Protected Natural Areas (PNA) are scarce, and those aimed at assessing the involvement of local communities with PNA are particularly deficient. In this paper, we show how management strategies of Protected Areas (PA) have created a lack of trust since the beginning on those social agents who are more directly affected by them. Even if sustainable development policies have tried to diminish the rift between local populations and PNA, they must be reinvented in order to face present preservation challenges and generate or increase citizens' commitment to PNA. Regarding the Natural Area of Doñana (Spain), some of the main challenges are conflicts due to water scarcity, the impact of agroindustry proliferation and the loss of traditional environmental knowledge. Social research provides us with critical elements to create management strategies capable of minimizing negative social and environmental consequences of the persistent and deceitful preservation/development dichotomy. Our main conclusion is that new responsibilities in ecological heritage management must be the result of public involvement, due to its ability to produce civic education and governability. This means that whether public involvement in the management of nature preservation in PNA succeeds or fails will determine the success or failure of preservation itself.

Keywords: Conservation; Civil society; Doñana; Protected Areas; Governability.

R.R.A. Hassan, W.S. Mohamed

Effect of Methyl Methacrylate/Hydroxyethyl Methacrylate Copolymer on Optical and Mechanical Properties and Long-Term Durability of Paper under Accelerated Ageing

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 237-250
The main goal of this study was to study and evaluate the effect of MMA/HEMA copolymer on the mechanical properties and chemical composition of wood pulp and cotton linter cellulose fibers samples under accelerated ageing .The change of the physical and chemical properties of the untreated and treated paper after ageing was assessed by different methods. The results revealed that copolymer improves the mechanical properties of the paper sheets with reduction in the ΔE, but after heat ageing the value increased, which is a point to consider. From the micrographs, it is clear that the treated fibers are more bundled to each other than the untreated fibers where this fiber bundles increased by increasing the copolymer concentration.

Keywords: Wood pulp; Ageing; Scanning Electron Microscope; Mechanical properties; Copolymer

N. Al-Sharairi, Z. Al-Saad, I. Sandu

Identification of Dyes Applied to Ottoman Textiles

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 251-258
Representative samples of textiles taken from Ottoman costumes were chemically analyzed for dyes identification purpose. The collection dates from the 19th century and belongs to the Museum of Jordanian Heritage. The chemical analyses were carried out using HPLC, FT-IR and two samples with EDX. Indigo, Madder, Prussian blue, Scheele’s green, synthetic alizarin and tannin additives were successfully identified. Relative production dates have been approximately determined. Such information is very helpful for future conservation. It also enriches our knowledge about these costumes in specific and costumes of the late Ottoman period in general.

Keywords: Dyes, Ottoman textiles, Jordanian Heritage, HPLC, FTIR, EDX.

S. Mahapatra, J. Rout, G. Sahoo, J. Sethy

Dietary Preference of Euphlyctis Cyanophlyctis Tadpoles in Different Habitats in and Around Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 259-268
Amphibian tadpoles are the key consumers and play an important role in the food chain of aquatic ecosystems. Understanding the natural diet of tadpoles can help in developing management strategies for them. We characterized the diet of 170 Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis tadpoles collected from 34 sites during rainy seasons (July to October) of 2014 and 2015 in different temporary habitats in and around Similipal Biosphere Reserve, India. After morphometric measurements (total length, body length and body width), the complete intestine of each tadpole was analyzed for food items and quantified based on the numeric frequency (NF %) and frequency of occurrence (FO %). The food spectrum of tadpoles included mostly detritus followed by phytoplanktons (represented by 6 classes and 55 genera). The food items ingested were similar in all the habitats, suggesting that they are non-selective predators that lack an apparent dietary preference, and their diet is mostly dependent on the availability of food items. Knowledge of food habits and feeding behaviour of the tadpoles is essential, since the early part of the life history of amphibians is dependent on the availability of the food items in the natural habitat.

Keywords: Similipal Biosphere Reserve; Euphlyctis cyanophlyctis; Tadpole; Diet; Phytoplankton.

C.K. Rohini, T. Aravindan, K.S. Anoop Das, P.A. Vinayan

Peoples’ Attitude Towards Wildlife Conservation In Kerala Part of the Western Ghats, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 269-280
High population densities around conservation areas demand strategies for balancing conservation goals and livelihood needs. Management of conservation issues and conflicting interests among stakeholders in such areas can be achieved by exploring the attitude of residents towards wildlife and its conservation. Although a substantial body of research analyses local resident’s attitude towards conservation challenges around protected areas, very scanty information is available on the attitude towards areas with less categories of protection status. Hence, an attempt was made to understand people’s attitude towards conservation issues, in the fringe villages of North and South Forest Divisions of Nilambur, Kerala, India. A questionnaire survey was administered to 158 residents in five villages during the year 2014 to 2015. Responses were differentiated under different categories of gender, literacy status, age, occupation, and landholding size. The majority of respondents supported wildlife conservation, provided that there is no associated cost. The attitude towards forest protection staffs were largely positive. An improved system of participatory level conservation programs will probably reduce antagonistic ambience between forest protection staffs and villagers to a great extent thereby enhance people’s tolerance towards conflict-causing wildlife, and thus facilitate conservation. Socioeconomic characteristics of residents provided some sort of explanation for the distribution of conservation attitude. These differences should be taken into consideration while designing and implementing any policies. People will support conservation of wildlife and natural systems if their problems are effectively addressed.

Keywords: Attitude; Conservation; Conflict; Nilambur; Kerala; Western Ghats; Wildlife; Management

U.H. Goursi, M. Kabir, A. Mehmood

Occurrence of Russell’s Chain Viper Daboia Russelii Russelii in Deva Vatala National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 281-288
The Russell’s chain viper is being reported for the first time from Deva Vatala National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJ&K) during surveys conducted from August 2011 to March 2012. The study area falls under dry sub-tropical region. The species is distributed in all the four selected sites of National Park over an area of about 7.2 km2. Distribution was determined through direct observations as also used indirect evidences (crawling signs, molted skin, burrow surveys etc.) in its habitat using sign survey. Occurrence and terrain examined which revealed that Vipers’ prefers gradual slopes (70%), as compared to steep slopes (12%) and flat areas (18%). The data on morphometric measurements were also recorded from two collected live specimens of Russell’s chain viper along with photographs. There is a ruthless killing of this snake by local people mainly out of fear (39%) which is the major threat to its population as compared to others i.e, illegal trade for their fine skin (10%), venom collection for medicinal purposes (5%), roadside killings (11%), habitat degradation including encroachment, developments and segmentation (22%) and lack of awareness (13%). The present study during 2011-2012 not only confirms the presence of Russell’s chain viper presence in Deva Vatala National Park but also highlighted the threats to study species.

Keywords: Distribution; Threats; Fauna of DVNP; Reptiles; Russell’s chain viper; Dry sub-tropical region

S. Utami, S. Anggoro, T.R. Soeprobowati

The Diversity and Regeneration of Mangrove on Panjang Island Jepara Central Java

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 289-294
Panjang Island is a small island under the administrative territory Jepara Regency, Central Java Indonesia. Small islands, such as Panjang, have been vulnerable to changes and environmental pressures. Because of their natural resources and fragile nature, the existence of small islands is necessary to be protected and ensured. Mangrove is a vegetation with a function to protect the coastal ecosystem. Its regeneration status will determine the sustainability of the ecosystem. This study aimed to assess mangrove species diversity and mangrove regeneration on Panjang Island. The site research was determined by purposive sampling. Research sites were four stations located in the southern, eastern, northern, and western part of the island. Each station occupied with three plots measuring 20 × 20 meters for tree stage, 5 × 5 m for sapling and 1 × 1 m for the seedling stage. Data was calculated according to important value index (IVI), diversity index (H') and the evenness index E . In Panjang Island, 7 true mangrove and 7 mangrove associated species have been found. The dominant true mangrove was Pemphis acidula, whereas the dominant mangrove associate was Thespesia populnea. The diversity index mangrove species (H') is between 1.28 – 1.82. The mangrove regeneration in Panjang Island did not take place appropriately, as indicated by the number of individual saplings (57 individuals/Ha) < number of individual seedlings (191 individual/Ha) < number of individual trees (274 individuals/Ha). There were two important tree species in Panjang island, Pemphis acidula (Stigi) with Least Concern status according IUCN, and Excoecaria agallocha. Both species require protection. The study recommended a mangrove reforestation with local species in order to obtain the sustainability of coastal ecosystem in Panjang Island.

Keywords: Small island; Diversity; Sustainability; Regeneration; Important Value Index (IVI).

M. Kabir, M. Waseem, S. Ahmad, U. Hafeez, M.N. Awan

Livestock Depredation by Leopard. An Alarming Intimidation for its Conservation in Pir Lasoora National Park Nakial, Azad Jammu And Kashmir

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 295-302
The threat posed by leopards to livestock and human lives makes their coexistence difficult. Mitigation measure should be based on an unequivocal understanding of the conflict patterns. Household surveys were conducted with an intention to quantify livestock losses and its effects on leopard conservation in the Pir Lasoora National Park. The questionnaire survey revealed a total of 72 livestock killed, equated to an annual loss of 4324.50 US$. Among the domestic animals, goats were killed significantly (p‹0.05) in higher number. Young and female stocks were more vulnerable to leopard attacks. Forests were the preferred killing sites, and night time killing was more frequent than during other periods of the day. Seasonal killing and attacks were also observed, both attacks and killing in June showed significant (p‹0.05) difference from other months of year. Results revealed the massive economic loss, which inevitably resulted in retaliation against 17 leopards since 2000 in the region. Habitat degradation and depletion of natural prey are more striking factors driving leopard populations to local extinction form the study area. Our results iterate the need of an awareness program, the implementation of collaborative insurance schemes, and the involvement of the local community in order to modify the negative perception towards the conservation of the leopard.

Keywords: Panthera pardus; Livestock depredation; Conservation; PLNP; AJ & K.

G. Murariu, V. Hahuie, A.G. Murariu, L. Georgescu, M.A. Calin, D. Buruiana, I. Soare, M. Onica, G.B. Carp

Growth Rate Modeling for White Poplar in the South Eastern part of Romania: An Important issue of Forrest Conservation

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 303-316
Nowadays, the process of monitoring forested areas is a national requirement. The importance of forests in mitigating climate change is well known. On the other hand, the economic aspects of forest management are important too. From this point of view, inventorying and assessing the growth and yield rate of wooded areas is extremely important. Estimating growth rate per hectare unit and production level of forested areas in order to obtain and accurate inventory is important in determining the supply of wood. The present paper is based on the evaluation after 6 growing seasons. The sectors monitored are located along areas of relatively low elevation (280–450 m). The climatic gradient can also be neglected because of the character of the studied areas. The research was carried out in the southeastern part of Romania. The entire complex comprises 375 forested tracts. Only for white poplar we have included a set of 36 carefully selected forest sectors. The study’s timespan was between 2010 and 2015, and data from the field have been used. The case study presented is white poplar, and the methods used are shown in a comparative way. Technological factors like consistence, density, etc. were carefully evaluated on the basis of direct observations and measurements. The recorded data were subsequently validated. The computer analysis, used on different optimization methods, was selected from the most employed series in the dedicated literature. Our results indicated that: (1) the evaluations of the estimated growth rate of production can be vary significantly when employing different statistical analysis and numerical methods; (2) by using numerical optimization models, the computer simulations can provide accurate estimates of the growth rate and, hence, the efficiency for a given forest inventory; (3) common numerical interpolation methods or neural network uses that do not always give consistent results. The specific numerical methods are preferable for a better assessment of the growth rate and existing inventory; and (4) investments in computer simulation methods and software should be encouraged in order to successfully reach a permanent inventory, to improve the efficiency of the logging operations, and to support environmental protection.

Keywords: Growth rate; Numerical approach; Statistical analysis; Interpolation method.

N.C. Pandey, D. Bhatt, D. Arya, B.M. Upreti, N. Chopra, G.C. Joshi, L.M. Tewari

Patterns of Agro-Diversity with its Socio-Economic Uses at Gagas Valley, Almora, Kumaun Himalaya

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 317-324
A large population (70%) of the Kumaun Himalayan region is largely depended on agriculture for its livelihood. In this community, various conventional crops and their associated cropping methods have prevailed for ages. The resulting agro-biodiversity systems are responsible for maintaining soil fertility, as well as a series of varied socio-cultural and religious rituals. But less emphasis, poor scientific understanding, and related socioeconomic issues, have gravely encumbered the recognition of solutions for a sustainable agricultural development in the Himalayan region. Currently, the policies have taken into consideration the importance of appropriate technologies, which can play a key role in coping with the uncertainties prevailing in the Himalaya and therefore have stressed the need for on-site training and capacity building of user groups in rural areas of the region. There is a vital need to fetch viable changes in the agricultural policy, research, land use and breeding approaches in reference to mountainous regions. The present paper describes patterns of agro-diversity with its socio-economic uses in the Gagas Valley, Kumaun Himalaya with some policy dimensions, and strategies for management of the agroecosystems.

Keywords: Agro-diversity; Mixed cropping; Conservation; Indigenous knowledge

R.P. Varela, G.A.A. Garcia

Arthropod Recolonization in Rehabilitated Mined-Out Nickel Mines in Surigao Province, Philippines

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 325-332
Arthropods inhabiting the soil and litter are eliminated during mine extraction particularly in nickel mining. In this operation, the topsoil and the associated vegetation are stripped off. Planting of Mangium (Acacia mangium) and Agoho (Casuarina equisetifolia) is generally done to rehabilitate the mined-out areas in Caraga Region, Philippines. To monitor the ecosystem restoration in rehabilitated sites, the recolonization of arthropods was assessed. Sampling was conducted in sites where C. equisetifolia and A. mangium are planted and in the newly introduced ecobelt. In the 4-year old and 10-year old C. equisetifolia planting at Hinatuan Mining Corporation, arthropods have started to assemble in the soil and litter. In these sites, species of ground beetles, true bugs and ants are present, with the red ants predominating. In 1-year old C. equisetifolia, none was sampled yet since the litter fall is still very thin and the soil is not yet favorable to harbor soil-inhabiting arthropods. In the ecobelt where 1-year old mixed planting of tree and flowering plant species at Hinatuan Mining Corporation, 7 species of arthropods were collected. In Taganito Mining Corporation, soil-dwelling beetles, true bugs, flies and springtails have been collected from the rehabilitated sites. In the 1-year old ecobelt at Taganito Mining Corporation, only species of red ants and staphylinid beetles were collected. The copious growth of the nurse trees in areas rehabilitated for 4 years and older and in the ecobelt provided partial shading that possibly modified the microclimate that attracted the arthropods.

Keywords: Recolonization; Arthropods; Mine rehabilitation; Nickel mining; Ecobelt

R.S. Sai Murali, G. Nageswara Rao, R. Basavaraju

Looking Through the Lens of a Conservation Biologist: Life of Medicinal Plants in the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India

[ Abstract ]
[ Full Article - PDF]                  pp. 333-347
Plants have been used by people to fulfil their spiritual, cultural, emotional and materialistic needs. In quest of using plants, man has forgotten the implications of overexploitation of these resources. Hence the question of restoring the balance has long been intriguing the conservation biologists. In this review we focus on the struggle of medicinal plants in the Eastern Ghats (EGs) of Andhra Pradesh (AP) in the changing scenario of overexploitation and destruction of natural habitats. Here we concentrate on a sum total of 267 medicinal plant taxa from these regions with due emphasis on their utility as leading herbal medicines. Endemic flora and the threat status of medicinal plants from this area are highlighted in this paper. Andhra Pradesh, so far, has been successful in having one biosphere reserve, six national parks and twenty one wildlife sanctuaries with over 13,000 sq km of forest cover, but there have been no proper scientific studies undertaken till date to evaluate the working and maintenance of these protected areas. As EGs of AP have received less attention from the Government and NGOs, the analysis of past research reports in this review gives a clariant call for a much awaited coordinated effort for conservation and management of plants in these areas. Furthermore, we stress on having a formal system to monitor the local pockets of these hilly ranges for a better coordinated conservation mechanism. This review is a humble attempt to give a wakeup call to all the policy makers, managers and other government officials working with protected areas and forest departments. The diversity of medicinal flora, uses and conservation priorities of Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh form the subject matter for this review.

Keywords: Medicinal Plants; Threat Status; Conservation; Ethnomedicine; Aboriginals; Eastern Ghats

Publication date: 15.06.2017


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